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Part IV. Natural Hazards.




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Unit I. Geologic Hazards and Man

Focus on:

· общенаучная и терминологическая лексика

· образование и употребление видо-временных форм глагола (Active/Passive)

· усеченная структура придаточных предложений (if recognized…)

· построение дефиниций

 

Revision:

· причастие I, II

· словосочетание/предложение

· слова заместители

· отрицательные аффиксы: in, un, ab, less

 

Text Study.

I

Geologic hazards are those geologic features and events that are hazardous or harmful to the extent that they frequently result in injuries or loss of life and property. Natural geologic processes which have been going on for millions of years may become geologic hazards when people get in the way. They include such adverse geologic phenomena as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, subsidence, tsunamis, soil creep, and avalanches. If not recognized, clearly understood, and accounted for in the activities of man, almost any geologic processes or features can become a geologic hazard.

Throughout history, there are many examples of geologic hazards which have resulted in disaster and have greatly affected the activities of man. Volcanic eruptions, such as those of Vesuvius, Krakotoa, and Mt.Pelee are just a few examples. Ten great earthquakes in China between the 11th and 12th centuries resulting in landslides and collapse of loessal cliffs, killed 1,5 million people. The list of disasters caused by “naturally occurring geologic hazards”, or those hazards over which man has no apparent control would indeed be lengthy.

Another category of geologic hazards is that of “man-induced hazards”. Man’s activity has helped to change the rate at place of occurrence of certain natural phenomena, resulting in hazards to himself. Some examples of man-induced hazards include: land subsidence caused by withdrawal of ground water and petroleum resulting in damage to foundations and other structures, and landslides resulting from highway construction which modifies stable slopes.

Both naturally occurring and man-induced geologic hazards are merely normal geologic processes or events until man gets in the way; then these processes or events become hazards. Earthquake are hazards when man lives too close to the active fault area, volcanic eruptions become so when man lives in close proximity to the volcano, and floods become hazards when man inhabits the flood plain.



II

What can the geologist do about geologic hazards? Working with adequate knowledge he can conduct proper geologic investigations that can be used to prevent a geologic hazard from becoming a disaster. Recognition or identification of a geologic hazard at a certain locality must first be made. Once clearly identified and defined, there are several approaches to solving the problem, depending on the type of hazard. One solution is to avoid the problem by changing the proposed location of a structure such as a reservoir, nuclear power plant or highway.This solution is often necessary in the case of naturally occurring hazards. Other alternatives are to eliminate the hazard. Normally, the latter approaches are more costly than avoiding the problem. The urgency to avoid or prevent geologic hazards is a necessary outgrowth of a society characterized by increasing population and urbanization.

What hope do we have for eliminating disasters caused by geologic hazards? There is little hope that they can be eliminated completely, but they could be greatly reduced with an understanding of the geologic aspects of the environment. Hopefully, prediction and control of many geologic hazards will become a reality in the near future.



 

Ex.1.

Найдите в тексте и выпишите английские эквиваленты следующим словам и выражениям:

· необдуманное вторжение и неправильное использование геологической среды

· до такой степени, что

· приносить вред, приводить к потерям жизни и собственности

· становиться преградой на пути чего-либо

· неблагоприятные и противоречивые геологические явления

· на протяжении истории

· приводить к разрушениям

· оказывать влияние на деятельность человека

· геологические катастрофы, являющиеся следствием природных процессов

· геологические катастрофы, являющиеся следствием деятельности человека

· район геологического сдвига (сброса)

· проводить геологические исследования

· предотвращать геологические катастрофы

· существует несколько подходов к решению данной проблемы

· преуменьшать угрозу геологической катастрофы

· исключить разрушения, вызванные катастрофой

 

Ex.2.

Сгруппируйте слова в зависимости от их произношения:

flood; mood; foot; blood; good; wood

[Q]:__________

[u]:__________

 

Ex.3.

«третий лишний» (по значению)

stupid – unwise – abuse

careful – cautious – carefree

adverse – harmful – favourable

 

Ex.4.

Подберите правильный вариант значения выделенного слова.

A неразумный

1. unwise

2. unwell

B неуместный, неподходящий



1. inert

2. inept

C неосторожный

1. careful

2. careless

D предотвращать

1. to prevent

2. to predict

E ущерб

1. danger

2. damage

F рана

1. injury

2. urgency

G объяснять

1. to account

2. to account for

H предсказывать

3. to prevent

4. to predict

 

Ex.5.


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