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Education in the United States is provided mainly by the ___, with control and funding coming from federal, state and local levels.
Educational standards and standardized testing decisions are ___ by the US states.
Institutions of higher education ___ two-year colleges, four-year colleges, universities, institutes of technology, vocational and technical schools and other schools.
Generally, at the high school level, the students take ___ variety of classes.
Some states consider ___ to be a passing grade.
High schools offer a wide variety of ___ courses.
Many students in high schools ___ in extracurricular activities.
These activities can be ___ to large amounts of time outside the normal school day.
30. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:
The university in the United States is an 1 ___ institution comprising a college of liberal arts and sciences, a professional school leading to a professional degree and a graduate college (school). A graduate 2 ___ provides programmes for study and research beyond the levels of the bachelor’s and first professional degree. In addition to colleges and 3 ___ there is in the United States a large number of professional schools. They 4 ___ preparation in one or more professional fields. The colleges in the United States differ greatly in 5 ___.
Check your answers on p. 279.
31. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:
Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about Harvard — the most famous American university (Text 6). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.
33. Read and translate the text below to learn about education in the United States:
Text 2 D
Post-Secondary Education in the United States
Post-secondary education in the United States is known as college or university and commonly consists of four years of study at an institution of higher learning. Students traditionally apply to receive admission into college, with varying difficulties of entrance. Schools differ in their competitiveness and reputation; generally, public schools are viewed as more lenient and less prestigious than the more expensive private schools. Admissions criteria involve test scores (like the SAT and ACT) and class ranking as well as extracurricular activities performed prior to the application date. Also, many colleges consider the rigor of previous courses taken along with the grades earned. Certain test scores, class rank, or other numerical factors hardly ever have absolute, required levels, but often have a threshold below which admission is unlikely.
Once admitted, students engage in undergraduate study, which consists of satisfying university and class requirements to achieve a bachelor’s degree. The most common method consists of four years of study leading to a Bachelor of Arts (BA), a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree, or sometimes (but very rarely) another bachelor’s degree such as Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA). Some students choose to attend a «community college» for two years prior to further study at another college or university. A community college is run by the local municipality, usually the county. Though rarely handing out actual degrees, community colleges may award an Associate of Arts (AA) degree after two years. Those seeking to continue their education may transfer to a four-year college or university. Some community colleges have automatic enrollment agreements with a local four-year college, where the community college provides the first two years of study and the university provides the remaining years of study, sometimes all on one campus. The community college awards the associate’s degree and the university awards the bachelor’s and master’s degrees.
Graduate study, conducted after obtaining an initial degree and sometimes after several years of professional work, leads to a more advanced degree such as a Master’s Degree (MA), Master of Science (MS), or other less common master’s degrees such as Master of Business Admisitration (MBA), Master of Education (MEd), and Master of Fine Arts (MFA). After additional years of study and sometimes in conjunction with the completion of a master’s degree, students may earn a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or other doctoral degree, such as Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Education or Doctor of Theology. Some programmes, such as medicine, have formal apprenticeship procedures like residency and interning which must be completed after graduation and before one is considered to be fully trained. Other professional programmes like law and business have no formal apprenticeship requirements after graduation (although law school graduates must take the bar exam in order to legally practice law). Entrance into graduate programmes usually depends upon a student's undergraduate academic performance or professional experience as well as their score on a standardized entrance exam like the GRE (graduate schools in general), the LSAT (law), the GMAT (business), or the MCAT (medicine). Many graduate and law schools do not require experience after earning a bachelor’s degree to enter their programmes; however, business school candidates may be considered deficient without several years of professional work experience. Only 8.9% of students ever receive postgraduate degrees and most, after obtaining their bachelor’s degree, proceed directly into the work force.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
34. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
35. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:
36. Find in the text the right word to complete the sentences:
1. ___ education in the United States is known as college or university.
2. Schools ___ in their competitiveness and reputation.
3. Once admitted, students engage in undergraduate study, which consists of satisfying university and class requirements to achieve a ___ degree.
4. The ___ college awards the associate’s degree.
5. Graduate ___ leads to a more advanced degree such as a Master Degree (MD).
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