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Read the information about oil use. Add the facts about the use of oil which you know. Discuss them with your partner.

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Oil Use


As a fuel, oil is used primarily in the form of gasoline and diesel to power vehicles. Thus it is the source of our mobility.

Almost all cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains and planes run on oil. Significant amounts are also used to power portable devices and stationery engines.



48 Read and translate the sample memorandum below in order to learn how to compose one:




TO: Assistant Secretary — Land and Minerals Management


Assistant Secretary — Water and Science

FROM: (Name)

Director, U.S. Geological Survey

SUBJECT: Memorandum Addressed to an Assistant Secretary (other than Water and Science)

Correspondence addressed to assistant secretaries other than our Assistant Secretary for Water and Science (AS/WS) should be routed through AS/WS. Correspondence directed to other departmental bureau heads that is of a technical or routine nature need not be routed through AS/WS, but rather should be sent directly to those bureaus with copies to AS/WS when appropriate.

Omit the sender’s reference («In Reply Refer To:» block), as the Department does not want any correspondence requiring a secretarial signature, concurrence, or approval to contain this reference. Because this memorandum requires the signature of the Assistant Secretary on the «Through:» line, we have omitted the «In Reply Refer To:» block.

We have included «U.S. Geological Survey» (USGS) on the «From:» line of this memorandum, since it is addressed to an office outside the USGS. Should the «Through:» line have included additional addressee(s), «Assistant Secretary — Water and Science» would have been typed below the other addressee(s).




(Type on file copies only)


cc: Sec Surname (Yellow letterhead with copy of incoming and attachment)

ES (White letterhead — xerox, with copy of incoming and attachment)

AS/WS (White letterhead — xerox, with copy of incoming and attachment)

Director’s File — MS 114 (White letterhead — xerox with copy of incoming and attachment)

Director’s Chron — MS 114 (White letterhead — xerox w/o copy of incoming and attachment)

Official File — MS xxx (Letterhead — xerox with copy of incoming and attachment)

Other File Copies (as appropriate)


USGS: Water: DTWilliams: cls: 8/12/2xxx: (703)648-xxxx: ACCN#2001xxxx: file name


49. Here is the sample of memorandum. Look through it in order to compose your own:




TO: Linda A. Suydam, D.P.A. Senior Associate Commissioner Food and Drug AdministrationTHROUGH: Jenny Slaughter Team Leader, Ethics Staff Division of Management Programmes, OHRMSFROM: John Treacy Director, Advisors and Consultants Staff Center for Drug Evaluation and ResearchSUBJECT: Conflict of Interest Waiver for Michael Smith, M.D.

I am writing to request a waiver for Michael Smith, M.D., a member of the Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee, from the conflict of interest prohibitions of 18 U.S.C. section 208(a). Waivers under section 208(b)(3) may be granted by the appointing official where «the need for the individual's services outweighs the potential for a conflict of interest created by the financial interest involved» and where the individual has made a disclosure of the financial interests at issue. We have determined that you are the appointing official for purposes of section 208. Therefore, you have the authority to grant Dr. Smith a waiver under section 208(b)(3).

Section 208(a) prohibits Federal executive branch employees, including special Government employees.

CONCURRENCE:_____________________________________ Jenny Slaughter Date Team Leader, Ethics Staff Division of Management Programmes, OHRMSDECISION:Waiver granted based on my determination, made in accordance with section 208(b)(3), that the need for the individual's services outweighs the potential for a conflict of interest created by the ____ Waiver denied.____________________________________ Linda A. Suydam, D.P.A. Date Senior Associate Commissioner Food and Drug Administration




50. Write a Memorandum according to the scheme:












51. Read the following text carefully in order to discover the main line of thought and make a plan for writing a short summary:


Gas processing equipment, whether in the field or at processing/treatment plants, assures that these tariff requirements can be met. While in most cases processing facilities extract contaminants and heavy hydrocarbons from the gas stream, in some cases they instead blend some heavy hydrocarbons into the gas stream in order to bring it within acceptable Btu* levels.

For instance, in some areas coalbed methane production falls below the pipeline’s Btu standard, in which case a blend of higher btu-content natural gas or a propane-air mixture is injected to enrich its heat content (Btu) prior to delivery to the pipeline. In other instances, such as at LNG import facilities where the heat content of the regasified gas may be too high for pipeline receipt, vaporized nitrogen may be injected into the natural gas stream to lower its Btu content.

In recent years, as natural gas pricing has transitioned from a volume basis (per thousand cubic feet) to a heat-content basis (per million Btu), producers have tended, for economic reasons, to increase the Btu content of the gas delivered into the pipeline grid while decreasing the amount of natural gas liquids extracted from the natural gas stream.


Notes on the text


Btu - British thermal unit - британская тепловая единица

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