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WORD BUILDING. 6. Make nouns from the following verbs by adding the suffixes:
6. Make nouns from the following verbs by adding the suffixes:
7. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type:
Harm — harmful — harmless; pollute – pollution; safe – unsafe; ill – illness; lubricate – lubrication; accident – accidental; poison – poisonous; wanted – unwanted; protect – protection; fertilize – fertilizer; nature – natural; new – newly; evaporate – evaporation; saturate — saturation
8. Define to what parts of speech the following words belong and translate them. Define which words in the list are complex words:
Poisonous; addition; harmful; polychlorinated; biphenyl; unwanted; suburban; rainwater; runoff; lavishly; biodegradable; nonbiodegradable; dangerous; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; concentration; biomagnification; reproductive; widespread; agricultural; environmental; protection; fertilizer; runoff; coincidence; centrifugal; cylindrical; impeller; outward; turnstile; inward; high-pressure; incompressible; necessarily; conservation; cross-section; downhill; abruptly; imbalance; one-way; measurement; arrangement; downstream; gravitational; atmospheric; downward; impure; extraction; purify; distillation; chemical; mixture; discharge; definition; unpermitted; disordered; unfrozen; imperfection; desalination
9. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:
10. Read and translate the text below concentrating on the problems of water pollution:
Text 12 A
Water is necessary to life on earth. All organisms contain it; some live in it; some drink it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is loaded with toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. If severe, water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing all members of a species in an affected area. Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to swim in. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who ingest polluted water can become ill, and, with prolonged exposure, may develop cancers or bear children with birth defects. The major water pollutants are chemical, biological, or physical materials that degrade water quality. Pollutants can be classed into eight categories, each of which presents its own set of hazards.
Oil and chemicals derived from oil are used for fuel, lubrication, plastics manufacturing, and many other purposes. These petroleum products get into water mainly by means of accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines, and leaky underground storage tanks. Many petroleum products are poisonous if ingested by animals, and spilled oil damages the feathers of birds or the fur of animals, often causing death. In addition, spilled oil may be contaminated with other harmful substances, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Chemicals used to kill unwanted animals and plants, for instance on farms or in suburban yards, may be collected by rainwater runoff and carried into streams, especially if these substances are applied too lavishly. Some of these chemicals are biodegradable and quickly decay into harmless or less harmful forms, while others are nonbiodegradable and remain dangerous for a long time. When animals consume plants that have been treated with certain nonbiodegradable chemicals, such as chlordane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), these chemicals are absorbed into the tissues or organs of the animals. When other animals feed on these contaminated animals, the chemicals are passed up the food chain.
With each step up the food chain, the concentration of the pollutant increases. This process is called biomagnification. In one study, DDT levels in ospreys (a family of fish-eating birds) were found to be 10 to 50 times higher than in the fish that they ate, 600 times the level in the plankton that the fish ate, and 10 million times higher than in the water. Animals at the top of food chains may, as a result of these chemical concentrations, suffer cancers, reproductive problems, and death.
Many drinking water supplies are contaminated with pesticides from widespread agricultural use. More than 14 million Americans drink water contaminated with pesticides, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 10 percent of wells contain pesticides. Nitrates, a pollutant often derived from fertilizer runoff, can cause methemoglobinemia in infants, a potentially lethal form of anemia that is also called blue baby syndrome.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
11. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
12. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words:
13. Find in the text the antonyms to the following words:
14. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:
To be necessary to life; toxic chemicals; affected area; to be unpleasant to look at; to be unsafe to eat; to be used for fuel; harmful substances; food chain; concentration of the pollutant; reproductive problems; agricultural use
15. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences:
1. Water is ___ to life on earth.
(a. urgent; b. important; c. necessary)
2. Plants and animals ___ water that is moderately pure.
(a. take; b. want; c. require)
3. If severe, water pollution can kill large ___ of fish, bids, and animals.
(a. numbers; b. quality; c. figures)
4. The major water pollutants are chemical, biological, or physical materials that ___ water quality.
(a. improve; b. degrade; c. upgrade)
5. Oil and ___ derived from oil are used for fuel, lubrication, plastics manufacturing, and many other purposes.
(a. substances; b. matter; c. chemicals)
6. Many petroleum products are ___ if ingested by animals.
(a. poisonous; b. necessary; c. useful)
7. Many drinking water supplies are ___ with pesticides from widespread agricultural use.
(a. contained; b. included; c. contaminated)
8. Nitrates can cause methemoglobinemia in ___.
(a. adults; b. infants; c. grown ups)
16. Read text 12A once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you:
1. All organisms contain water, some live in it, some drink it.
2. Plants and animals can survive if their water is loaded with toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms.
3. Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to swim in.
4. The major water pollutants degrade water quality.
5. Many petroleum products are poisonous if ingested by animals.
6. Some of the chemicals are biodegradable, while others are nonbiodegradable and remain dangerous for a short time.
7. When the concentration of the pollutant increases this process is called biomagnification.
8. More than 10 million Americans drink water contaminated with pesticides.
9. Nitrates can cause a potentially lethal form of anemia that is also called blue baby syndrome.
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