1. Active Vocabulary
  2. Active Vocabulary
  6. Appendix 3 Active vocabulary
  7. Biologically active supplements
  8. C. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.
  9. Changing of Voice

Task 1. Taken from A Piece of Soap by H. Munro

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Norman Gortsby was sitting on a bench hidden behind the bushes in Hyde Park. It was a warm May evening. The sun had already set and it was rather dark, but he was sitting on the bench. He was a philosopher, and liked sitting in the Park watching people whom he didnt know. While he was wondering who they were and where they were going, a young man came up to the bench gave a quick look at him and threw himself down by his side.

You dont seem to be in a very good mood, said Norman. The young man was silent. He only looked at Norman again and there was an expression in his eyes that Norman didnt like.

I really dont know how it all happened, he began at last, but Ive done the silliest thing that Ive ever done in my life. He spoke in a low voice, almost in a whisper.

Yes? said Norman coldly.

I came to London this afternoon, the young man went on. I had a meal at the hotel, sent a letter to my people, giving them the address and then went out to buy a piece of soap. They are supposed to give you soap at the hotel but its always so bad that I decided to buy some for myself. I bought it, had a drink at a bar, and looked at the shops. When I wanted to go back to the hotel, I suddenly realized that I didnt remember its name or even what street it was in. Of course I can write to my people for the address, but they wont get my letter till tomorrow. The only shilling I had on me when I came out was spent on the soap and the drink and here I am with two pence in my pocket and nowhere to go for the night. And the soap I lost it.

Its too much to lose a hotel and a piece of soap on the same day, said Norman.

But the young man did not hear him. He was running away. It was a good idea to ask him about the soap, and so simple, Norman thought as he rose to go. But at that moment he noticed a small packet lying by the side of the bench. It was a piece of soap. Turning red, Norman picked it up.

Stop! cried Norman when he saw him at the Park gate. The young man obeyed.

Heres your piece of soap, Norman said. I found it under the bench. Dont lose it again. And heres a pound, if it can help you.

Thanks, said the young man, and quickly put the money into his pocket.

Heres my card with my address, continued Norman. You can return the money any day this week.

Its a good lesson to me, Norman thought, and went back to the Park. When he was passing the bench where the little drama had taken place, he saw and old gentleman looking for something.

Have you lost anything, sir? Norman asked.

Yes, sir, a piece of soap.


Exercise 2. Change theTense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. Norman Gortsby was sitting on the bench in the Hyde Park when a young man came to him. V1=sit(irreg.) (yesterday, tomorrow from 7p.m. to 10p.m., recently)

2. The young man wont tell the truth in the future. V1=tell(irreg.) (ever, last night, always)

3. Will you send money back next week? V1=send(irreg.) (last week, by next week, just)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

The young man will send him letter tomorrow. V1=send(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

A piece soap was being looked for by the old gentle man, when he was passing the bench. V1=look(reg.)

Task 2.Taken from A Friend in Need by S. Maugham

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Its rather a funny story, he said. He wasnt a bad chap. I liked him. He was always well-dressed and smart-looking, he was handsome in a way, with curly hair and pink-and white cheeks. There was no harm in him, you know, he was only wild. Of course, he drank too much. A bit of money he got from home and made a bit more by card-playing. He won a good deal of mine, I know that.

Burton continued I suppose he came to me because he was in a difficult situation, and he was a namesake of mine. He came to see me in my office one day and asked me for a job. I was rather surprised, he told me that there was no more money coming from home and he wanted to work. I asked him how old he was.

Thirty-five, he said.

And what have you been doing before? I asked him.

Well, nothing very much, he said.

I couldnt help laughing.

Im afraid I cant do anything for you just now, I said. Come back and see me in another thirty-five years, and Ill see what I can do.

He didnt move. He became pale. There was a pause. Then he said suddenly that he could swim and he swam for his university when he was young.

Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me.

I suggested him to swim round the beacon. Its over three miles and its rather difficult because there were very strong currents round the beacon. Well, I told my young namesake about it and I said to him that if hed do it I give him a job.

He was frightened he told me that he could swim but he was not a good swimmer. He hesitated for some moments and then he agreed.

We shook hands. I wished him good luck and he left me. I had a lot of work to do that morning and I only just managed to get to the creek at half-past twelve. But I neednt have hurried; he never turned up.

Did he change his mind at the last moment? I asked.

No, he didnt. He started all right. But of course hed ruined his Constitution by drink and dissipation. The currents round the beacon were more than he could manage. We didnt get the body for about three days.

I didnt say anything for a moment or two. Then I asked Burton a question.

When you made him that offer of job, did you know that hed be drowned?

He looked at me with those kind blue eyes of his. He rubbed his chin with his hand.

Well, I hadnt got a vacancy in my office at the moment.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. He made a bit more money by card-playing yesterday. V1=make(irreg.)

(from time to time, tomorrow, recently)

2. They wont have given him a credit by next Friday. V1=give(irreg.)

(last week from Monday to Thursday, every month, for many years)

3. Have you been doing anything before? V1=do(irreg.)

(now, last week, next week from Monday to Friday)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

I promised Burton a job. V1=promise(reg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

His body constitution had been ruined by drinking. V1=ruin(reg.)

Task 3. Taken from Looking Back on Eighty Years by S. Maugham

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

In my long life I have seen many changes in our habits and customs. The world I entered when at the age of eighteen I became a medical student was a world that knew nothing of planes, motor-cars, movies, radio or telephone. When I was still at school a lecturer came to Canterbury and showed us boys a new machine which reproduced the human voice. It was the first gramaphone. The world I entered was a world that warmed itself with coal fires, lit itself by gas and paraffin lamps, and looked upon bathroom as a luxury out of the rich.

On Sundays the muffin man made his rounds ringing his melancholy bell and people came out of their doors to buy muffins and crumpets for afternoon tea.

It was a very cheap world. When I entered St. Thomass Hospital I took a couple of furnished rooms for which I paid 18s a week. My landlady provided me with a solid breakfast before I went to the hospital and high tea when I came back at half past six and the two meals cost me about 12s a week.

I had enough money to go to the theatre at least once a week. The pit, to which I went, was not the orderly thing it is now. There were no queues. The crowd collected at the doors, and when they were opened there was a struggle, with a lot of pushing and elbowing and shouting to get a good place. But that was part of the fun.

Travelling was cheap, too, in those days. When I was twenty I went to Italy by myself for the six weeks of the Easter vacation. I went to Pisa and spent a wonderful month in Florence; then I went to Venice and Milan and so back to London.

I spent five years at ST Thomass Hospital. I was an unsatisfactory medical student, for my heart was not in it. I wanted, I had always wanted, to be a writer, and in the evening, after my tea, I wrote and read.

I wrote a novel, called Liza of Lambeth, sent it to a publisher and it was accepted. It was appeared during my last at the hospital and had something of a success. It was of course an accident, but naturally I did not know that. I felt I could afford to chuck medicine and make writing my profession; so three days after passing the final examinations which gave me my medical qualifications, I set out for Spain to learn Spanish and write another book.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. I go to the theatre every week. V1=go(irreg.)

(last week, tonight, for many years)

  1. He didnt study medicine properly many years ago. V1=study(reg.)

(at the moment, by next year, all year long)

  1. Were people buying muffins when the muffin man rang his bell? V1=buy(irreg.)

(tomorrow, every day, already)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

I sent a novel to a publisher. V1=send(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive Voice into Active:

The play will be accepted by the public. V1=accept(reg.)

Task 4. Taken from A Dog by M. Twain

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

I have always believed that a man must be honest.

Never ask for money which you have not earned, I always said.

Now I shall tell you a story which will show you how honest I have always been all my life. One day, at the house of a friend of mine, I met General Miles.

Im pleased to have met you, said the general. How could it happen that we did not meet earlier?

He does not remember me, I thought, but we met once in Washington ten years ago.

I was poor then and very often I had no money to buy bread. On that day, my friend and myself were in need of three dollars, we need these three dollars very much.

I went from one place to another and asked all the people I knew; but nobody gave me anything, not even one dollar.

At last I came to a big hotel. I went into the hall of the hotel and sat down there. At that moment a nice little dog ran into the hall. The dog was friendly and as I had nothing to do, I began to play with it.

I was playing with the dog when a man in a uniform entered the hall. I knew him at once he was General Miles. He liked the dog and asked me to sell it. He wanted to buy it for twenty dollars but I asked only three. General Miles paid me the three dollars, took the dog and went up to his room in the hotel.

Ten minutes later an old man came into the hall. He looked round the hall.

Are you looking for a dog, sir? I asked.

Oh, yes! Have you seen one? said the man. A little white dog.

I answered that I saw the dog and promised to give it back to him.

General Miles was angry. Then give me back my three dollars and take the dog away, he said. I took the dog and gave him three dollars back.

I carried the dog to the hall of the hotel and gave it back to the old man. He was very happy and paid me the three dollars I had asked for. I was happy too, because I had the money we needed, and I felt that I had earned it.

Now you can see why I say that a man must not ask for money that he has not earned.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. I was playing with the dog when a man in a uniform entered the hall. V1=play(reg.)

(now, yesterday, from time to time)

  1. General Miles hasnt paid twenty dollars for a dog then. V1=pay(irreg.)

(half an hour ago, next week, by next week)

  1. Had the author of the story met General Miles before? V1=meet(irreg.)

(many years ago, sometimes, today)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

I have just sold the dog for three dollars. V1=sell(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The dog will be found in five minute. V1=find(irreg.)


Task 5. Taken from Post Haste by C. Howard

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

I say, Im pleased to see yon, said the little man standing by the letter box.

Oh, hallo, I said, stopping. Simpson, isnt it?

The Simpsons were newcomers to the town, and my wife and I had only met them once or twice.

Yes, thats right, answered Simpson.

I wonder if you could lend me some money. I put my hand into my pocket. You see, he continued, my wife gave me a letter to post, and Ive just noticed it isnt stamped. It must go tonight it really must! And I dont think the post office will be open at this time of night, do you?

It was about eleven oclock and I agreed that it wouldnt.

Im sorry, but Im afraid I havent money either, I said.

We both looked up and down the street, but there was nobody to be seen.

Yes, well, I said, intending to move off. But he looked so unhappy standing there with the blue unstamped envelope that I really couldnt leave him alone.

Ill tell you what, I said, Youd better walk along with me to my place its only a few streets off and Ill try to find some change for you there.

At home, we managed to find the money he needed. He thanked me and left. I watched him take several steps up the street and then return to me.

I say, Im sorry to trouble you again, he said. Im rather lost in this part of the town Will you tell me the way to the post-office? He was so nervous that he dropped the letter on the ground and when he picked it up there was a large black spot on its face.

I led the way to the post-office. Simpson put a penny into the automatic stamp-machine. The coin passed through the machine, but with no result. The machine was empty.

Suddenly I remembered that I had a book of stamps at home. It took rather a long time to find the book of stamps. But when we found it, we saw after all that it was empty. The last thing I could advise him to do was to post the letter unstamped. Let the other man pay double postage on it in the morning.

I took him firmly by the arm and accompanied him to the post-office in time for the midnight collection. He dropped in his letter, and then, to finish off my job, I took him home.

On the way home Simpson remembered something he was very excited. All the way home I was wondering what it was he had remembered.

But I stopped wondering the next morning, when I had to pay the postman double postage for a blue envelope with a large black spot on its face.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. I had just got stamps out of the machine. V1=get(irreg.)

(yesterday, next day, from time to time)

2. They didnt meet anybody in the street last night. V1=meet(irreg.)

(yet, tomorrow, by next day)

3. Will Mr. Simpson drop his letter next evening? V1=drop(reg.)

(some hours ago, just, before he posted it)


Exercise 2. Change Active into Passive:

The author of the story had been explaining to Mr. Simpson the way to the post office all evening long yesterday. V1=explain(reg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The letter was given me by my wife to post. V1=give(irreg.)

Task 6. Taken from Stepmother by J. Greenwood

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

I was born at Number Nineteen, Turnmill Street, London. My mother died when I was five years old. She died fifteen minutes after my sister Polly was born. As my father worked from morning till night, he had no time to look after Polly and me, so he married again soon. He married Mrs Burke, who was much younger and more good-looking than my mother.

But I did not like my stepmother and she did not like me. So we began to hate each other; but she did not show her hatred when my father was at home. She beat me very often and she made me work very hard. From morning till night she found work for me to do. I looked after the baby. When she was awake, I took her for a walk, carrying her in my arms, and she was very heavy. I cleaned the rooms, went shopping, etc. There was always work for me to do.

One day a woman came to see my stepmother and they drank a lot of gin. All the money that my father had left for our dinner was spent. When the woman went home, my stepmother began to cry and asked me to help and gave me a penny.

So I went off and spend my penny on sweets. When I came back and opened the door, my father was at home waiting for me with his waist-belt in his hand. I wanted to run out of the room, but he caught me by the ear.

Stop a minute, young man! he said. What have you done with the money?

I lost it, Father, said I in fear and looked at my stepmother.

Oh, you lost it! Where did you lose it?

In the street, Father. Ask Mrs Burke, she knows! I told him what my stepmother had asked me to tell him.

I was not much surprised that he did not believe my story. But my stepmothers words surprised me very much.

Yes, he told me the same thing, she said, but he is a liar! He has spent your money on sweets. I cant beat him, he is your child, but you can give him a good beating!

And she stood by while my father beat me with his belt till the blood showed. I hated my stepmother so much now that I wanted to see her dead.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. Jimmy was cleaning the rooms when he was living with his stepmother. V1=clean(reg.)

(yesterday, tomorrow from morning till midday, already)

2. The stepmother doesnt cry often. V1=cry(reg.)

(before, last night, now)

3. Has the father ever beat Jimmy? V1=beat(irreg.)

(always, next day, when the stepmother spent the money)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

She has spent the money on wine. V1=spend(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

Jimmy was being beaten by his father with the belt till the blood showed. V1=beat (irreg.)

Task 7. Taken from How We Kept the Mothers Day by S. Leacock

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Of all the different ideas that have been started lately, I think that the very best is the notion of celebrating once a year Mothers Day.

We decided to have a special celebration of Mothers Day. We thought it a fine idea. It made us realise how much Mother had done for us for years, and all the efforts and sacrifices that she had made for our sake.

So we decided that wed make it a great day, holiday for all the family, and do everything we could to make Mother happy. Father decided to take a holiday his in office, so as to help in celebrating the day, and my sister Ann and I stayed home from college classes, and Mary and my brother Will stayed home from High School.

After breakfast we decided that we would hire a motor car and take Mother for a beautiful drive away into the country.

When the car came to the door, it turned out that we couldnt all get in. Father said that he could stay at home and work in the garden. There was a lot of dirty work that he could do. He said that he wanted us to be happy and have a big day. The girls said that Mother had only to say the word and theyd gladly stay at home and work.

In the end it was decided that Mother would stay at home and have a lovely restful day round the house. It turned out anyway that Mother didnt care for fishing and also it was just a little bit cold and fresh out-of-doors, though it was lovely and sunny, and Father was afraid that Mother might take cold if she came.

So we all drove away and Mother stood and watched us as long as she could see us.

We had the loveliest day. Father and the boys fished, the girls met quite a lot of people. We all had a splendid time.

It was quite late when we got back. The dinner was ready. It was grand. Mother had to get up and down during the meal fetching things back and forward, but at the end Father noticed it and said she simply mustnt do it, that he wanted her to spare herself.

When the dinner was over all of us wanted to help clear the things up and wash the dishes, only Mother said that she would really much rather do it.

It was quite late when it was all over, and when we all kissed Mother before going to bed, she said it had been the most wonderful day in her life and I think there were tears in her eyes.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. Our mother had done much for us for years. V1=do(irreg.)

(always, these days, in the future)

2. They didnt help their mother yesterday. V1=help(reg.)

(when she was decorating the house, yet, usually)

3. Was the mother having a good time when her children celebrated the Mothers Day? V1=have(irreg.)

(tomorrow from morning till night, every time when we celebrated the Mothers Day, since we celebrated the Mothers Day)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

Father had bought silk ties for himself and for the boys. V1=buy(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The dinner was being cooked while the father and the children were having a good time. V1=cook(reg.)



Task 8. Taken from A Sympathetic Heart by O. Henry

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Miss Martha Meacham kept a little bakery on the corner: Miss Martha was forty, she had two false teeth and a sympathetic heart.

Two or three times a week a customer came, and she began to take interest in him. He was a middle-aged man, wearing spectacles and a brown beard. He spoke English with a strong German accent. His clothes were old and worn, but he looked neat and had very good manners. He always bought two loaves of stale bread. Fresh bread was five cents a loaf. Stale ones were two for five. He never bought anything but stale bread.

Once Miss Martha saw a red and brown spot on his fingers. She was sure that he was an artist and very poor. Surely he lived in a garret where he painted pictures and ate stale bread and thought of the good things to eat in Miss Marthas bakery.

Often when Miss Martha sat down to her supper she wished that the artist might share her tasty meal instead of eating the stale bread in his garret. Miss Marthas heart was a sympathetic one.

One day Miss Martha put some fresh butter in the loaves. When the customer came she was tying the paper round them.

For a long time that day she thought about him and imagined his surprise and pleasure when he discovered the butter in the loaves.

Suddenly the front door bell rang furiously. Somebody was coming in, making a great deal of noise. As Miss Martha hurried to the door, she saw two men come in. One was a young man she had never seen before. The other was her artist. His face was very red, his hat was on the back of his head, his hair in disorder. He shook his fist at Miss Martha shouting, You, fool, you old cat, you have ruined me! The young man took him by the arm.

Come on, he said, you have said enough, and dragged the angry one to the door.

I think you ought to be told, maam, he said, what it is all about. This gentlemans name is Blumberger. He is an architect. I work in the same office with him. He has been drawing a plan for a new city-hall. It was a prize competition. He finished inking the lines yesterday. You know, an architect always makes his drawing in pencil first. When its done, he rubs out the pencil lines with stale bread. Thats better than Indian rubber. Blumberger has been buying the bread here. Well, today ...you know, maam, that butter isnt ...well, Blumbergers plan isnt good for anything now, except to cut up into sandwiches.

Miss Martha went to the back room. She took off her blue silk blouse and put on the old brown one she had always worn before.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. The customer always buys two loaves of stale bread. V1=buy(irreg.)

(just, last evening, tomorrow)

  1. The customer isnt talking with Miss Martha too much these days. V1=talk(reg.)

(usually, yesterday, in the future)

  1. Did Miss Martha help the architect two hours ago? V1=help(reg.)

(recently, today, from time to time)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

He was drawing a plan for a new city hall. V1=draw(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The pencil lines were rubbed with stale bread. V1=rub(reg.)

Task 9. Taken from The Two Gifts by O. Henry

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Jim and Delia were very poor. They lived in New York in a small room on the top floor of a high building. Jim was twenty-two years old, Delia was twenty-one.

Both husband and wife worked very hard, but there never was any money in the house: for all they got went to pay for food. And the rent was $ 8 a week.

And yet they owned two treasures of which they were very proud. There treasures were Jims gold watch which he had got from his father, and Delias beautiful golden hair.

It was the eve of New Years Day. Delia wanted to give Jim a present. She counted her money only $ 1.87 to buy a present for Jim. So she sat down on the sofa and wept. Suddenly she got up and went to the looking-glass.

She put on her old brown jacket and her old brown hat. Then she ran out of the door and down the stairs to the street.

She stopped before a sign and read the words: M-me Sofronie Hairgoods of all kinds. Then she entered the shop. Madame was sitting at the counter. She bought Delias hair for $ 20.

The next two hours were like a happy dream, Delia was hurrying from shop to shop looking for Jims present.

She found it at last. It was a watch chain for which she paid $ 21. And then she hurried home with the chain and the remaining 87 cents.

At 7 oclock the coffee was ready. Delia sat waiting for Jim. She heard his steps on the stairs, and she turned white for just one moment. The door opened and Jim entered the room. He looked thin and very serious ... and suddenly Jim stopped. His eyes were fixed upon Delia, and there was an expression in them that she could not understand, and it terrified her.

Jim, darling! she cried. Dont look at me like that! I sold my hair because I wanted to give you a present. My hair will grow again. It grows very fast. Say A Happy New Year, Jim, and let us be happy. You dont know what a beautiful present I have for you.

Jim said nothing. He drew a package from his overcoat pocket and put it on the table.

If you open that package, you will understand, he said.

Delia took off the paper. There lay the beautiful combs that Delia had seen in a Broadway shop window. Now they were hers, but her hair was gone.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. Jim and Della are living in New York these days. V1=live(reg.)

(last year, by next year, next year from April to September)

  1. They dont rent the expensive apartment every year. V1=rent(reg.)

(this year, yet, when they lived in New York)

  1. Does Della count her money often? V1=count(reg.)

(yesterday, next day, already)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

Della sold her beautiful hair for $20. V1=sell(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The wonderful combs have been bought for Della. V1=buy(irreg.)

Task 10. Taken from Repair the Bicycle or Ride It?by Jerome K. Jerome

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

One day Harris was invited by his friend Ebbson to go on a long bicycle ride. Harris agreed. The following day he got up very early, but Ebbson came half an hour late. It was a lovely day. He said:

Thats a good-looking machine. How does it run?

Oh, like most of them, Harris answered. Ebbson took it by the front wheel and the fork, and shook it.

He said, This front wheel wobbles. It must be repaired. Have you got a spanner?

Harris thought that perhaps Ebbson really knew something about the business. He went to his room to see what he could find. When Harris came back, the machine was taken to pieces. Ebbson was sitting on the ground with the front wheel between his legs. He was playing with it turning it round and round between his fingers.

He said, Something has happened to this front wheel. I think the ball-bearings are all wrong.

Harris said, Dont trouble about it. Let us put it back and start.

But Ebbson could not be stopped. He unscrewed something somewhere, and many little balls rolled out all over the path.

Catch them! Ebbson shouted. Catch them! We must not lose them.

They looked for the balk for half an hour, and sixteen were found.

Harris put them in his hat and put his hat upon the doorstep.

At last the wheel was put into position. And when it was in position Ebbson began to laugh.

What is the matter? Harris asked.

Ebbson said, I am a fool! We have forgotten the ball bearings.

Harris looked at his hat. It was lying in the middle of the path, and wifes little white dog was swallowing the balls one by one as quickly as he could.

Eleven balls were found. They put six on one side and five on the other. Half an hour later the wheel was put in its place again. It really wobbled now.

Harris took the bicycle to the nearest repairing shop. The foreman I looked at it and said,

That is difficult to repair it now but I will do my best.

There are two ways you can sport out of a bicycle. You can repair it or you can ride it. But it is impossible to get both forms of sport out of the same machine. No machine will stand it.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. Harris and Ebbson repair the bicycle often. V1=repair(reg.)

(last week, tomorrow from morning to night, for many years)

2. They didnt ride a bicycle yesterday. V1=ride(irreg.)

(yet, today, all day long)

3. Has Ebbson ever helped Harris? V1=help(reg.)

(at the moment, from time to time, last weekend)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

The white little dog was swallowing the balls when they fell down on the ground. V1=swallow(reg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The wheel was put on its place again half an hour later. V1=put(irreg.)

Task 11. Taken from Advantages of Cheeses as a Traveling Companion by Jerome K. Jerome

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

I remember a friend of mine buying a couple of cheeses at Liverpool. Wonderful cheeses they were, ripe and with a two-hundred-horse-power scent about them that might knock a man over at two hundred yards. I was in Liverpool at the time, and my friend asked me to take the cheeses back with me to London.

I took my tickets, and marched proudly up the platform, with my cheeses, the people falling back on both sides. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage where there were already seven other people. A few moments passed, and then the old gentleman who was sitting next to me began to sniff, saying Quite oppressive. Then he rose up without another word and went out. And then a stout lady got up, took up a bag and eight parcels and left the carriage. The other passengers sat for a while, until a gentleman in the corner said it put him in mind of a dead body; and the other passengers tried to get out of the door at the same time.

From Crews I had the compartment all to myself, though the train was crowded.

My friend stayed in Liverpool longer than he had planned, and, three days later his wife called on me. She said, What did Tom say about those cheeses? I said that he had asked me to keep them in a moist place and that nobody was to touch them. She said, Nobodys going to touch them. Had he smelt them? I said he liked them very much.

When my friend arrived he decided to get rid of them. He threw them into the canal; but had to fish them out again, as the bargemen complained. They said it made them feel quite faint. And, after that, he took them one dark night and left them in the parish mortuary. But the coroner discovered them and made a fearful fuss.

My friend got rid of them, at last, by taking them down to a seaside town, and burying them on the beach. It gained the place quite a reputation. Visitors said they had never noticed before how strong the air was, and sick people went there for many years afterwards.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. I am taking my tickets at the moment. V1=take(irreg.)

(already, by next week, last week)

  1. Toms family didnt stay at home yesterday. V1=stay(reg.)

(when I brought the cheeses, since I brought the cheeses, all week long)

  1. Was Tom eating the cheeses when he came back? V1=eat(irreg.)

(from time to time, next week, before his family came back home)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

He threw the cheeses into the canal. V1=throw(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The cheeses had been buried on the beach. V1=bury(reg.)


Task 12. Taken from The Old Monkey and the Wise Bear Folk Fairy Tale

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Long, long ago there lived a travelling monkey-man. He went from place to place with his monkey and showed the animals tricks to people.

One evening the man came home and told his wife to send for the butcher the next morning.

The wife asked her husband,

Why do you want me to send for the butcher?

The monkey is too old and forgets his tricks. I beat him as hard as I can but he doesnt dance well. I must sell him to the butcher.

The woman was very sorry for the little animal and asked her husband not to sell the monkey but the man did not want to listen to her.

The monkey was in the next room and heard every word. He understood what the man wanted to do with him and thought, How cruel my master is! Didnt I serve him well all my life? And now he wants to sell me to the butcher because Im too old.

The monkey did not know what to do. Then he thought of a wise bear who lived in the forest.

The bear was pleased to hear that he was wise and decided to help the monkey.

The monkey thanked the bear and went home. He did not sleep much that night. He got up very early and waited. Soon the masters wife opened the door, put her child near it and began to prepare the breakfast.

The child was playing in the sun. Suddenly there was a noise at the door and a loud cry from the child. The mother ran out of the kitchen and saw the bear running away with her child. She cried out and then ran into the room where her husband was still sleeping. He sat up slowly and asked what all the noise was about. When the man understood what his wife was telling him, they both ran out. The bear was far away, but they saw the monkey running after the bear as hard as his legs could carry him.

The man and his wife did not know how to thank the good monkey when he brought the child back to them.

There! said the wife. This is the animal yon want to kill, the animal that saved your child.

Youre right, wife, said the man, carrying the child into the house. You may send the butcher back when he comes, and now give us all a good breakfast and the monkey too.

When the butcher came they sent him away and the monkey lived the rest of his days in peace and his master never beat him again.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. The monkey-man went from place to place with his monkey many years ago. V1=go(irreg.) (today, tomorrow, for many years)

2. The monkey wasnt dancing well, when he became old. V1=dance(reg.)

(yesterday, in the future, all day long)

3. Had the monkey slept much recently? V1=sleep(irreg.)

(often, when the muster wanted to sell him to the butcher, last night)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

The bear will take the child when nobody is near. V1=take(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The monkey hasnt been beaten again. V1=beat(irreg.)



Task 13. Taken from I Spy by G. Green

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Charlie Stowe waited until he heard his mother snore before he gut out of bed. Even then he moved with caution to the window. It was possible to see a light burning in his mothers room. But now all the windows were dark. A searchlight passed across the sky, seeking enemy airships. The wind blew from sea, and Charlie Stowe could hear behind his mothers snores the beating of the waves. Charlie Stowe was frightened.

But the thought of the tobacconist shop which his father kept down a dozen stairs drew him on. He was twelve years old, and already boys at the school mocked him because he had never smoked a cigarette. The packets were in the little shop full of stale smoke which would completely hide his crime. That it was a crime to steal some of his fathers cigarettes he had no doubt but he did not love his father, his father was unreal to him, pale, thin, indefinite, who noticed him only from time to time and left even punishment to his mother.

At the bottom of the stairs he came out into the little shop. It was too dark to see his way, and he did not dare touch the switch. Then the regular movement of the searchlight was reflected through an upper window and the boy had time to see cigarettes, the counter, and the small hole under it. The footsteps of a policeman on the pavement made him take the first packet and hide in the hole. A light shone along the floor and a hand tied the door, then the footsteps passed on.

At last he got his courage back by telling himself that if he were caught now there was nothing to be done about it, and he might as well have his smoke. He put a cigarette in his mouth and then remembered that he had no matches. For some time he dared not move. Three times the searchlights lit the shop. Oh, God, dont let me be caught, he thought.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. A searchlight is passing across the sky at the moment. V1=pass(reg.)

(every night, recently, next night from 12a.m. to 3 a.m.)

2. Charlie hadnt ever smoked a cigarette. V1=smoke(reg.)

(this year, often, yesterday)

3. Did Charlie steal cigarettes last night? V1=steal(irreg.)

(when his father came to the shop with two strangers, from time to time, in the future)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

He took the first packet of cigarettes last night. V1=take(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The searchlight was being reflected in the upper window during the night. V1=reflect (reg.)


Task 14. Taken from Storm Boy by C. Thiele

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Storm Boy lived between the Coorong and the sea. His home was the long, long snout of sandhill and scrub that curves away southeastwards from the Murray Mouth. A wild strip it is, with the flat shallow water of the South Australian Coorong on one side and the endless slam of the Southern Ocean on the other. They call it the Ninety Mile Beach. All day and all night the waves tumble and thunder. And when the wind rises it whips the sand up the beach.

People seldom saw Hide-Away or Storm Boy. Now and then they sailed up the Coorong in their little boat to the little town with a name like a water-birds cry Goolwa! There Storm Boys father bought boxes and tins of food, coils of rope and fishing lines, new shirts and sandals, kerosene for the lamp, and lots of other packages and parcels until the little boat was loaded like a junk.

People in the street looked at them wonderingly and said to each other! Theres Tom, the beachcomber from down the coast. Hes come out of his hide-away for a change. And so, by and by, they just nick-named him Hide-Away, and nobody even remembered his real name.

Storm Boy got his name in a different way. One day some campers came through the scrub to the far side of the Coorong. They carried a boat down to the water and crossed over to the ocean Beach. But-a dark storm came towering in from the west during the day. The campers ran back over the sandhills through the flying cloud and the gloom. Suddenly one of them stopped and pointed through a break in the rain and mist.

Great Scot! Look! Look!

A boy was wandering down the beach all alone. He was as calm and happy as you please, stopping every now and then to pick up shells.

He must be lost! cried the camper. Quick, take my things down to the boat; Ill run and rescue him. But when he turned round the boy had gone. They couldnt find him anywhere. The campers rushed off through the storm and raised an alarm as soon as they could get back to town.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. The wind has risen recently. V1=rise(irreg.)

(two hours ago, in two hours, by the end of the day)

  1. Hide Away doesnt often speak to people. V1=speak(irreg.)

(last time, when his wife died, since his wife died)

  1. Is the storm coming from the west today? V1=come(irreg.)

(from time to time, yesterday evening, tomorrow)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

Storm boy picks up shells every day. V1=pick(reg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The little boat was loaded like a junk. V1=load(reg.)


Task 15. Taken from Storm Boy by C. Thiele


Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

The only other man who lived anywhere near them was Fingerbone Bill, the Aboriginal. He was a wiry, wizened man with a flash of white teeth and a jolly black face as screwed-up and wrinkled as an old boot. He had a humpy by the shore of the Coorong about a mile away.

Fingerbone knew more about things than anyone Storm Boy had ever known. He could point out fish in the water and birds in the sky when even Hide-Away couldnt see a thing. He knew all the signs of wind and weather in the clouds and the sea. And he could read all the strange writing on the sand-hills and beaches the stories made by beetles and mice and ant-eaters and crabs and birds toes. Before long Storm Boy had learnt enough to fill a hundred books.

In his humpy Fingerbone kept a disorganized collection of iron hooks, wire netting, leather, boat-oars, tins, rope, torn shirts, and an old blunderbuss. Once he found a big glass marble and blew it clean through a wooden box just to prove that blunderbuss worked. But the only time Storm Boy ever saw Fingerbone kill anything with it was when a tiger snake came sliding through the grass to the shore like a thin stream of black glass barred with red hot coals. As it slid over the sand towards his boat Fingerbone grabbed his blunderbuss and blew the snake to pieces.

As the years went by, Storm Boy learnt many things. All living creatures were his friends. In the hole at the end of a burrow he found the Fairy Penguin looking shyly at two white eggs. So, he visited the burrow almost every day.

Hullo, Mrs. Penguin, said Storm Boy each day. How are your little ones today?

Fairy Penguin didnt mind Storm Boy. Instead of pecking and hissing at him she sat back sedately on her tail and looked at him gently with mild eyes.

Storm Boy liked best of all to wander along the beach after what Hide-Away called a Big Blow. For then all kinds of treasure had been thrown up by the wind and the wild waves. There, where the wide stretch of beach was shining, he would see the sea-things lying as if theyd been dropped on a sheet of glass all kinds of weed and coloured kelp, star-fish, little dead sea-horses and dozens of different sheik.


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. He is reading a strange writing on the sand hills now. V1=read(irreg.)

(for many years, many years ago, when Storm Boy found him)

2. Fairy Penguin wasnt hissing when Storm boy was near. V1=hiss(reg.)

(usually, next time, all day long)

3. Did he wear shorts most of last year? V1=wear(irreg.)

(most of next year, by the end of September, from time to time)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

He was keeping a disorganized collection of iron hooks, boat-oars, torn shirts, and an old blunderbuss in his humpy. V1=keep(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

All kinds of treasure had been thrown up by a Big Blow. V1=throw(irreg.)

Task 16. Taken from Brown Wolf by J. London

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Once Walt Irvine and his wife Madge, who lived in a small cottage in the mountains, found a dog. He was thin and weak, but he did not let them touch him. He ate the food they gave him only after they had gone away. But when he was strong again, he disappeared.

A few months later, when Irvine was in a train between California and Oregon, he looked out of the window and saw his dog running along the road, two hundred miles away from home. He got off his train at the nearest station, bought a piece of meat, caught the dog and took him home again. So Wolf, as they called him, came a second time to the mountain cottage. There he was tied up for a week.

To win him became a problem, but Irvine liked problems. At the end the week he tied a piece of thin bright metal round the dogs neck with the words: RETURN TO WALT IRVINE, GLEN ELLEN CALIFORNIA, then the dog was let go, and he disappeared, a day later came a telegram. In twenty hours Wolf had ran over hundred miles to the north, and was still going when caught.

This time, he was sent back by express train. He was tied up for three days, and was let go on the fourth. And he disappeared again.

As soon as he was given his freedom he always ran north. He was always brought back weak and always ran away fresh and strong.

One summer day, a man came to the cottage. He said his name was Skiff Miller. He had come from the North to visit his sister.

The dogs mine. Look here, and Skiff Miller turned to the dog. Brown! Right! The dog turned to the right. Then Miller ordered the dog to do several other things that working dogs in the North are taught to do.

Ill tell you what Ill do, said Skiff Miller. The dog was a good worker, hes done a lot of work for me, and maybe he has got a right to choose. He must decide for himself. Ill say good-bye and go away. If he wants to stay, he can stay. If he wants to come with me, let him come. I wont call him to come and dont you call him to come back.

For some time wolf watched Skiff Miller go, waiting for him to return. Then he ran after him and tried to stop him. Then the dog ran back to where Irvine and his wife sat and tried to make Irvine go to Miller. He wanted to be with his old master and the new one at the same time. At this moment Miller disappeared.

The dog lay down at Irvines feet. Madge was happy, but a few minutes later the dog got up and ran away. He never turned his head. Quicker and quicker he ran along the road and in a few minutes was gone.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

  1. Wolf has just run over hundred miles. V1=run(irreg.)

(before he was caught, every twenty hours, tomorrow)

2. Irvine and Madge werent touching the dog while he was eating his food. V1=touch(reg.)

(last month, for many days, these days)

  1. Did the dog stay at a cottage last week? V1=stay(reg.)

(by next month, often, all month long)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

They had tied the dog for three days. V1=tie(reg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The dogs are taught to do many things by the masters in the North. V1=teach(irreg.)


Task 17. Taken from The Last Leaf by O. Henry

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

Sue and Johnsy were poor artists who lived in a little New York district west of Washington Square. They painted pictures which they hoped to sell. Their studio was on the third floor of an old brick house.

They became friends in May and decided to live together. In November Johnsy fell ill. She lay in bed near the window and looked at the side of the next brick house.

One morning, the doctor asked Sue to come out into the corridor. Your friend is very ill, she has one chance in let us say, ten, he said, And that chance is for her to want to live. After the doctor had gone, Sue went into Johnsys room. As Sue was working she heard Johnsy counting. She went quickly to the bedside. Johnsys eyes were open. She was looking out of the window and counting something.

Sue looked out of the window. What was there to count? There was only a yard and the brick wall of the next house. An old, old ivy-vine was growing on the brick wall. There were only a few leaves on it.

What are you counting, Sue asked.

Leaves on the ivy-vine. When the last one falls, I must go too. Ive known that for three days. Didnt the doctor tell you?

Try to sleep, said Sue. I must call Behrman up to be my model.

Old Behrman was a painter who lived on the ground floor in the same house. He was over sixty. Behrman was a failure in art, but he still hoped to paint a masterpiece. Sue found Behrman in his little room. She told him about Johnsys illness.

When Johnsy opened her eyes the next morning, there yet stood out against the brick wall one yellow and green ivy leaf, it was the last on the vine.

The day came to its end and even in the evening there was still one leaf on the ivy-vine. In the morning, the girls looked out of the window. The one ivy leaf was still on the vine.

Johnsy lay for a long time looking at it. And then she called to Sue and said, Ive been a bad girl. Something has made that last leaf stay there to show that we must always hope for the best. You may bring me a little soup now, and some milk.

The doctor came in the afternoon he said to Sue, Shes much better now, shes getting well. Now I must see old Behrman on the ground floor, some kind of a painter, I believe. Pneumonia too.

That afternoon Sue came to the bed where Johnsy lay.

I have something to tell you, dear, she said. Mr. Behrman died of pneumonia today in the hospital. He was ill only two days. Do you know why the leaf never moved when the wind blew? Ah, dear, its Behrmans masterpiece he painted it there the night that the last leaf fell.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. Two young artists were painting pictures when they lived in New York. V1=paint(reg.)

(for many years, last year, today)

2. The leaf didnt fall last night. V1=fall(irreg.)

(yet, tomorrow, by winter)

3. Does Behrman always help the girls? V1=help(reg.)

(yesterday, recently, these days)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

Behrman was drawing the leaf when Johnsy was sleeping. V1=draw(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The Last Leaf has been made to stay on its place forever. V1=make(irreg.)

Task 18. Taken from The Luncheon by W.S. Maugham

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

I saw her at the play and in answer to her beckoning I went over during the interval and sat down beside her. It was long since I had last seen her. She addressed me brightly, Well, its many years since we first met. How does time fly! Do you remember the first time I saw you? You asked me to luncheon.

Did I remember?

It was twenty years ago and I was living in Paris. I had a small apartment in the Latin Quarter overlooking a cemetery and I was earning money to keep body and soul together. She had read a book of mine and had written to me about it. I answered thanking her and presently I received from her another letter saying that she was passing through Paris and would like to have a talk with me: but her time was limited and the only free moment she had was on the following Thursday; she was spending the morning at the Luxemburg and would I give her a little luncheon at Foyots afterwards? (Foyots was a restaurant so far beyond my means that I had never even thought of going there. But I was flattered and I was too young to have learnt to say no to a woman).

I never eat anything for luncheon, she said when we were in the restaurant. I never eat more than one thing. A little fish perhaps. I wonder if they have any salmon.

After salmon came caviar, champagne

She ate the caviar and she ate the salmon. She talked of art and literature and music, but I wondered what the bill would come to.

The she ordered a giant asparagus.

We waited for the asparagus to be cooked. Panic caught me. It was not a question now how much money I should have for the rest of the month, but whether I had enough to pay the bill.

Then I ordered coffee for myself and an ice-cream and coffee for her. Then a terrible thing happened. While we were waiting for the coffee, the head waiter came up to us bringing a large basket full of huge peaches. So, I had to buy her a pitch.

Follow my example, she said as we shook hands, and never eat more than one thing for luncheon.

Ill do better than that, I answered. Ill eat nothing for dinner tonight!

Humorist! she cried, jumping into a cab. You are quite a humorist!

But I have had my revenge at last I do not believe that I am a revengeful man, but when the immortal gods take a hand in the matter it is pardonable to observe the result with self-satisfaction. Today she weighs twenty-one stones (133 kilograms).


Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to the Time Marker:

1. I was earning a small salary when I was young. V1=earn(reg.)

(last month, these days, all year long)

2. She wasnt thinking about my difficulties when she was having her lunch. V1=think(irreg.)

(for many days, in the future, twenty years ago)

3. Has the author paid the bill already? V1=pay(irreg.)

(at the moment, last time, till next month)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

She had read a book of mine. V1=read(irreg.)

Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The asparagus will be brought soon. V1=bring(irreg.)


Task 19. Taken from The Adventure of My Aunt by W. Irwing

Exercise 1. Name the underlined forms of the verbs:

My aunt was a big woman, very tall, with a strong mind and will. She was what you may call a very manly woman. My uncle was a thin, small man, very weak, with no will at all. He was no match for my aunt. From the day of their marriage he began to grow smaller and weaker. His wifes powerful mind was too much for him; it weakened his health. My aunt took all possible care of him; half the doctors in town visited him and prescribed medicine for him enough to cure a whole hospital. She made him take all the medicines prescribed by the doctors, but it didnt help him. My uncle grew worse and worse, and one day she found him dead.

Some time passed, and my aunt decided to move to Derbyshire where she had a big country-house. The house stood in a lonely, wild part of the country among the grey Derbyshire hills.

One evening, after she had sent away her girl-servant she sat by her toilet-table, arranging her hair. Suddenly she thought she heard something move behind her. She looked round quickly, but there was nothing to be seen. Nothing but the painted portrait of her poor dear husband on the wall behind her.

Oh, it is only the wind, she thought and went on putting her hair in papers, but her eyes were still fixed on her own reflection and the reflection of her husbands portrait in the looking-glass. Suddenly it seemed to her that in the glass she saw one of the eyes of the portrait move. It gave her a shock.

But her fear soon was over. Next moment, my aunt who, as I have said, had a remarkably strong will, became calm. She went on arranging her hair. She even sang her favourite song in a low voice and did not make a single false note. Then she walked quietly out downstairs she called the servants and ordered to pull down the picture.

A heavy sigh was heard from the portrait. The servants stepped back in fear.

Pull it down at once, cried my aunt.

The picture was pulled down, and from behind it, they pulled put a big, black-bearded fellow with a knife as long as my arm, but trembling with fear from head to foot.

He said that he had stolen into my aunts room to get her box of money laid jewels, when all the house was asleep. My aunt did not send for the police. She ordered the servants to pull the man through the horse-pond in order to wash away his crimes, and then to dry him well with a wooden towel.

Soon after she gave her hand to the rich gentleman of the neighbourhood.

Exercise 2. Change the Tense of the Sentence According to a Time Marker:

1. My aunts heart beats fast every time she is frightened. V1=beat(irreg.)

(when she saw the eye of the portrait moved, these days, all evening long)

2. My aunt didnt send for the police yesterday. V1=send(irreg.)

(yet, next time, often)

3. Was she thinking about a rich gentleman when she was arranging her hair? V1=think(irreg.)

(since her girlhood, from time to time, next day from morning to night)


Exercise 3. Change Active into Passive:

She was putting her hair in papers. V1=put(irreg.)


Exercise 4. Change Passive into Active:

The candle was moved again. V1=move(reg.)



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