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Great Britain

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1. Great Britain (official name — the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is situated on two large islands, the larg­er of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The total area of Great Britain is 240,000 sq. kms, Its population is 56,000,000 people.

2. In the north-west and west the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, in the east — by the North Sea. The island of Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel Northern Ireland, which is a part of Great Britain and which is situated on the island of Ireland, is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel.

3. The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (in the north and west of the island) and lowland (in the south and east). There are no very long rivers in Great Britain. The most important rivers are the Thames (the deepest) and the Severn (the longest). The rivers seldom freeze in winter. Due to the moderating influence of the sea Great Britain has an insular climate, rather humid and mild, with­out striking discrepancy between seasons.

4. Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Bir­mingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

5. England is the largest part of Great Britain. Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the north-east part of the island of Ireland.

6. Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially the head of state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the min­isters and Parliament.

7. Great Britain is a highly-developed industrial country. The main British industries are machine-building, ship-building, metal­lurgy, and electronics.

8. London is the capital of the UK. It is a political, economic and commercial centre. Its population is about 8 million. London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world. It is about 20 centuries old. Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.

The heart of London is the City, the oldest part. It is its financial and business centre.

Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London! Westminster Abbey is the place coronation of nearly all king and queens.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury.

The East End is the industrial district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here.

9. The flag of the UK is called “The union Jack”. The upright Red Cross is the cross of St.George. He is the Patron Saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St. Andrew. He is the Patron Saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick. He is the Patron Saint of Ireland. St. David is the Patron Saint of Wales.

The flag is very important for Englishmen, because if the flag is up, the queen, or the king, is at home

10. Every part of the UK has its own symbol. The emblem of England is a Red rose. The emblem of Scotland is a thistle. The emblem of Wales is a leek or daffodil. The emblem of Ireland is a shamrock.



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