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Читайте также:
  1. A) Draw a family tree for yourself and using the topical vocabulary explain the relationship between your immediate ancestors and any interesting facts about them.
  2. A. Study the topical vocabulary.
  3. A. Study the vocabulary from Exercises B, E.
  5. Active Vocabulary
  6. Active Vocabulary
  7. Appendix 3 Active vocabulary
  8. C. Study the topical vocabulary.

Task 6. [individually]

Complete the ACADEMIC VOCABULARY chart with the translation and transcription of the words. The code in the first column of the chart denotes the source of the word (the letter stands for the passage or text the word is taken from, and the figure stands for the line the word occurs in). Remember to use definitions as well as the context to find the appropriate Russian equivalents. Circle those meanings in which the words are used in unit texts, where applicable.


  word transcription definition translation
E 73 1. approach [C] [+ to ]   1. a method of doing sth or dealing with a problem  
    2. movement nearer to sb/sth in distance or time  
D1 2. area [C] [+ of ] [in +]   1. a particular part of a country, city etc.  
    2. a particular subject or activity, or an aspect of it  
E 3. cause[C] [+ of ]   a person, event or thing that makes sth happen  
E 4 4. concept [C] [+ of ]   an idea of how sth is, or how sth should be done  
E72 5. controversy [C,U] [+ over/ about / surrounding ]   a serious argument or disagreement among many people over a plan, decision etc., over a long period of time  
C9, E9 6. discipline [U]   1. the practice of training people to obey rules and orders and punishing them if they do not; the controlled behaviour or situation that results from this training  
[C]       2. an area of knowledge; a subject that people study or are taught, especially in a university  
C14   7. domain[C] [in / within +] [outside + ] [+ of] formal   an area of knowledge or activity; especially one that sb is responsible for  
A(f) E21 8. experience [U]   1. the knowledge and skill that you have gained through doing sth for a period of time  
  [U]   2. the process of gaining knowledge and skills  
  [C] [+ of ]   3. sth that happens to sb, or an event that sb is involved in  
  [U]   4. direct personal awareness of or contact with a particular thing  
  [U]   5. the sum total of the things that have happened to an individual and of his or her past thoughts and feelings  
  [U]   6. knowledge acquired through the senses rather than through abstract reasoning  
E107 9. field   1.an area of land in the country used for growing crops or keeping animals in, usually surrounded by a fence, etc  
    2. a particular subject or activity that sb works in or is interested in  
E78, 91 10. interpretation[C,U]   the particular way in which sth is understood or explained  
E46 11. issue [C]   1. a problem or subject that people discuss  
    2. one of a regular series of magazines or newspapers  
A (f) 12. nature[U]   1. all the plants, animals and things that exist in the universe that are not made by people  
[C, U] [by + ]   2. the usual way that a person or an animal behaves that is part of their character  
[C, U] [by + ] [+ of ]   3. the basic qualities of a thing  
A (c), C6, E16 13. science[U]   1. the study of the physical world and its manifestations, especially by using systematic observation and experiment (often used before a noun )  
[U]   2. the study of science  
[U,C]   3. a particular branch of science  
[sing.] [+ of ]   4. any systematically organized body of knowledge about a specific subject  
A (a) 14. study [C]     1. a piece of work that is done to find out more about a particular subject or problem, and usually includes a written report  
  [U]   2. a particular type of subject that people learn about and study, esp. a science  
  studies [plural]   3. subjects that people study, esp. several related subjects  
  [U]   4. the activity of studying for school, college etc  
A (d)   15. human   of or connected with people rather than animals, machines or gods  
E11 16. key   very important and necessary for success or to understand sth  
E73 17. literal   1. being the basic or usual meaning of a word or phrase  
    2. that follows the original words exactly  
C13   18. major   1. very large or important  
    2. related to sb's main subject of study in college  
E 19. argue [I,T] [+ for / against sth] [that]   1.to state, giving clear reasons, that sth is true, should be done etc.  
[I] [+ with] [+ about / over]   2. to disagree with sb in words, often in an angry way  
E35 20. assume [T] [that]   to think or accept that sth is true but without having proof of it  
D1, E 105 21. define [T] [+ sth as sth]   1. to explain the exact meaning of a particular word or idea  
    2. to describe or show sth accurately  
F62 22. emerge[I] [+ as sth]   to start to exist; to appear or become known  
E39, 118 23. establish[T]   1. to start or create an organization, a system, etc. that is meant to last for a long time  
    2. to start having a relationship, esp. a formal one, with another person, group or country  
    3. to cause sth / sb to become generally accepted or recognized  
    4. to discover facts that will prove that sth is true  
E 24. identify [T] [sth [+ sb/sth as sb/sth]   1. to recognize sb/sth and be able to say who or what they are  
    2. to find or discover sb/sth  
D6 25. observe [T]     1. to see or notice sb/sth  
      2. to watch sb/sth carefully, especially to learn more about them  
  formal   3. to make a remark  
E85 26. refer referred, referring refer to [T] PHRASAL VERB     1. to mention or speak about sb/sth    
[+ to ]   2. to describe or be connected to sb/sth  
    3. to look at sth or ask a person for information; CONSULT  
[+ sb/sth to sb/sth]   4. to send sb/sth to sb/sth for help, advice or a decision  
C11 27. state[T]   to formally write or say sth, especially in a careful and clear way  
A(h) 28. underlie[T] underlay, underlain formal   to be the basis or cause of sth    


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