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Грамматические упражнения. Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы с суффиксом -ing.
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на формы с суффиксом -ing.
1. A raft is produced by making the entire bottom of the building as one large footing.
2. Walls may be used as spanning members, carrying their own weight as well as some supported loads.
3. There are structural actions of foundation elements, involving internal stresses and strains.
4. Steel frames are convenient in buildings in which central heating or air conditioning plant has to be provided.
5. The load transmission conditions being approximately the same in both directions, a planning with a square mesh is often adopted, this being typical of in-situ concrete construction.
6. The walls of the staircase do not perform a structural function in stiffening the building.
7. Separate panels can readily be removed without damaging adjacent ones.
8. Rainwater run-off from a concrete roof can be obtained more economically by sloping the roof beams.
9. The load-carrying structure of an upper floor transmits the loads acting directly upon it to the supports.
10. This is best achieved by providing frequent lateral supports to the walls so that bending and tensile stresses are low.
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сослагательное наклонение.
1. One belt truss would be best placed somewhere between the half and three-quarter points in the height of the building.
2. The trusses then function as if they were continuous constructions.
3. These shear walls counterbalance the tensile forces that would otherwise be caused by bending moments.
4. The unit would not fall out if the pressure were enough.
5. If a high strength steel had been used, it would have produced a lighter structure.
6. Cast-in-place slab system is practical where irregular floor designs would make it difficult to form similar precast units.
7. If foundation walls are quite high, a basement is required.
Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
Студент C: Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
IBM EXHIBITION PAVILION, EUROPE
The pavilion is specially designed to be easy to demount, transport and re-erect. It is entirely clad in a transparent plastic, which also doubles up as part of the structure. The plastic is moulded into units which are light and pyramid-shaped for strength.
The design of the superstructure is practically the design of a single arch element which, on each side of the arch, consists of six transparent polycarbonate plastic pyramids with a single outer laminated timber chord, joining the tops of the pyramids together, and with two inner laminated timber chords, attached to the base corners of the pyramid. These inner chords are 1.20 m apart and are joined to each other near the pyramid corners by timber cross-members, at right angles to them, thus forming a 'ladder'. The two halves of the arch unit are joined to each other at the apex by pin connections between the two timber 'ladders'; there is no structural connection between the polycarbonate pyramids at the apex. Thirty-four such arches placed at 1.40 m centres, with a joint between each one, make up the superstructure.
The arch units are fixed to a raised steel floor structure. It consists of 450mm deep light steel lattice trusses, which are at 1.40m centres, on the joint lines, and span between short steel legs at each side and in the centre of the arch span; each leg is made of a threaded bar and tube which allows adjustment for height. These trusses connect on each side, in the centre and at two other intermediate points, to other trusses of the same depth at right angles to them. The floor panels are 1.40 m wide and span between the trusses. They consist of a 55 mm deep corrugated steel deck which supports 20 mm floor board through bent metal strips.
demount v. демонтировать
mould v. формовать
threaded adj. имеющий резьбу
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. Why was this particular design chosen for the structure?
2. What element is the superstructure design based on?
3. How many elements make up the superstructure?
4. What does the floor structure consist of?
5. What kind of steel was used for the deck?
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