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KYE INFORMATION SECTION 4




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  1. A. Complete the sentences according to the information in the text.
  2. Act out a teacher-class session, telling your students the origin of Robinson Crusoe. Feel free to add any comments or relevant information.
  3. And authors to schoolchildren. Feel free to add any relevant information.
  4. B) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.
  5. B. Read the information and say if you were right in your guesses.
  6. B. Say whether the following statements are true, false or there is no information on the subject of the text.
  7. Characteristics of Good Information
  8. Compose your own dialogues using the information of texts 5C and 5D.
  9. Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about ecology as a science (Texts 20, 21). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.
  10. Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about electricity (Texts 34, 35, 36, 37). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.

Topology of networks refers to the shape of a network. There are some basic physical topologies.

Star: there is a central device to which all the workstations are directly connected. This central position can be occupied by a server, or a hub, a connection point of the elements of a network that redistributes the data. All traffic that transverses the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement. An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes. The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure.

Extended star: a type of network topology in which a network that is based upon the physical star topology has one or more repeaters between the central node (the 'hub' of the star) and the peripheral or 'spoke' nodes, the repeaters being used to extend the maximum transmission distance of the point-to-point links between the central node and the peripheral nodes beyond that which is supported by the transmitter power of the central node or beyond that which is supported by the standard upon which the physical layer of the physical star network is based.

If the repeaters in a network that is based upon the physical extended star topology are replaced with hubs or switches, then a hybrid network topology is created that is referred to as a physical hierarchical star topology, although some texts make no distinction between the two topologies.

Bus: every workstation is connected to a main cable called a bus. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable through some kind of connector. A terminator is required at each end of the bus cable to prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on the bus cable. A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the IP address on the network that is the intended recipient. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, if the data does match the machine address, the data is accepted. Since the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies.



Ring: the workstations are connected to one another in a closed loop configuration. Each machine or computer has a unique address that is used for identification purposes. The signal passes through each machine or computer connected to the ring in one direction. Ring topologies typically utilize a token passing scheme, used to control access to the network. By utilizing this scheme, only one machine can transmit on the network at a time. The machines or computers connected to the ring act as signal boosters or repeaters which strengthen the signals that transverse the network. The primary disadvantage of ring topology is the failure of one machine will cause the entire network to fail.

Mesh networking is a type of networking wherein each node in the network may act as an independent router, regardless of whether it is connected to another network or not. It allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by “hopping” from node to node until the destination is reached. A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each other is a fully connected network. Mesh networks differ from other networks in that the component parts can all connect to each other via multiple hops, and they generally are not mobile.



Hierarchical network (also known as tree network): the type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e., the second level) with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node, while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e., the third level) connected to it, also with a point-to-point link, the top level central 'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy (The hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical.) Each node in the network has a specific fixed number of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy, being referred to as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree.


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