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Passive Voice

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  1. C. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.
  2. Complete the following text with the verbs from the box, using them in the appropriate form (active or passive).
  3. D. Rewrite these sentences in the passive voice.
  4. Exercise 2. Make up sentences of your own using the suggested words. Use the Passive Voice.
  5. Exercise 29 Pay special attention to translation of the sentences in the Passive. Begin your translation with prepositions.
  6. Forming the passive.
  7. Grammar Review 3 – Passive Voice
  8. Macr; Focus on grammar. Passive vs. Active
  9. Passive
  10. Passive Voice
  Indefinite be+V-ed (3ф) Continuous be being + V-ed (3ф) Perfect have been + V-ed (3ф)
Present The letter is written. The letter is being written now. The letter has been written.
Past The letter was written. The letter was being written when you called. He said that the letter had not been written yet.
Future The letter will be written.   The letter will have been written by 5 o’clock.



особові I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them
присвійні my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs
зворотні та підсилювальні myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
взаємні each other, one another
вказівні this (these), that (those), such, the same
питальні who, whom, whose, what, which
відносні та з’єднувальні who, whom, whose, what, which, that
невизначені some, any, one, all, each, every, other, another, both, many, much, few, little, either, no, none, neither

Functions of Modal Verbs and Synonymous Expressions


здібність (ability) He can read Arabic.   She’s able to run a marathon. He could/was able to read Arabic when he was four. (дія, що повторюється – здібність у минулому) He was able to escape. (одинична дія)
можливість(possibility)   He can win the race. (90% впевненості) They could still be at school. (50% впевненості; можливо вони ще у школі.) Tom may be studying in his room. (може бути; 50% впевненості; можливо він ще навчається.) He might want some more food. (40% впевненості; можливо він бажає ще поїсти.) It’s likely thathe will arrive tonight. He is likely toarrive tonight.     She could havebeen killed in the car crash. (Нащастя, вона залишилась жива.) He may havespoken to Jenny yesterday. (Можливо він говорив з Дженні.) He might have forgotten. (Можливо він забув.) It was likely that he had arrived the day before. He was likely to have arrived the day before.
вірогідність (probability) They will be home soon. (100% впевненості; передбачення) Greg should win easily. (90% впевненості; він переможе без зусиль; лише до майбутнього.) They ought to be home by now. (90% впевненість; напевно, вони будуть вдома.)     He should have received his prize by now. (На цей час він можливо вже його одержав.) They ought to have arrived an hour ago. (Напевно, вони вже приїхали.)
логічне припущення (logical assumption) She must be working. (90% впевненості; я впевнений, вона ще працює.) She can’t be over forty. ( Я впевнений, що їй не більше сорока років.) He couldn’t be at work ( Я не думаю, що він на роботі.) She must have been working. (Я впевнений, що вона працювала.)   She can’t have stolen the money. (Я впевнений, що вона не крала грошей.) He couldn’t have been at work yesterday. (Я не думаю, що він був на роботі учора.)
дозвіл (permission) You can/can’t borrow my car. (дозвіл або відмова; неформальний)   Could I use your phone? (більш ввічливе; запит дозвілу) You may use the phone. (формальне; надання дозвілу) Might I speak to Mr Jones, please? (більш формальне; запит дозволу) I’m afraid you can’t/mustn’t see the patient. (неформальне; відмова) Children may notbe left unaccompanied. (формальне; відмова – письмове повідомлення) He wasn’t allowed to/couldn’t cross the border. He was allowed to enter the country. (not: could)  
необхідність (necessity) I must buy a new jacket. (Я так вважаю.) He has to put some petrol in the car. (необхідність згідно з зовнішніми обставинами для того, хто говорить) I’ve got to go to the bank now. (неформальне) My car needs repairing. or My car needs tobe repaired. (це необхідно) They don’t have to/don’t need to/needn’t come if they don’t want to. (відсутність необхідності) I ought to get my hair cut. (це необхідно) I had to buy a new jacket. (Я повинен був.) Since his car was being repaired he had to go to York by train.   I had to go to the bank yesterday.   My car needed repairing. or My car needed to be repaired. (це було необхідно) She didn’t have to go. (відсутність необхідності) He needn’t have worn such heavy clothes. (Йому можна було не одягати такі важкі речі, але він це зробив.) She didn’t need to/didn’t have to buy any apples. (Їй не треба було купувати яблука і вона їх не купила.)
порада (advice) You should drink more water. (загальна порада; я раджу вам) You ought to respect the elderly. (я раджу вам; більшість людей так вважає) You had better finish it. (це добра ідея; порада щодо певної ситутації) Shall I buy that car? (запит поради) You should havegone to bed earlier last night. (але ви цого не зробили) He ought to have seen a doctor earlier. (але він цого не зробив) It would have been better if you had finished it yesterday. (але ви цього не зробили)
критика (criticism) You could at least help me.     You could have at least helped me last night. They should have tried harder. (але вони цого не зробили) You ought to have behaved yourself yesterday. (Було б добре це зробити, але ви цього не зробили.)
обов’язок (obligation) I must go on a diet. (я повинен; я так вважаю.) I have to go on a diet. (Я повинен; так сказав лікар.) We ought to help the poor. (Це добре, але люди не завжди це роблять.) I had to go on a diet a month ago.   I had to go on a diet a month ago.    
запити (requests) Can I borrow your book? (неформальне) Could Iborrow your book? (ввічливо) May I have a cup of coffee, please? (формальне) Might I use your phone? (дуже формальне) Will you phone Jane tonight? (дружнє) Would you mind sending this fax? (ввічливе)    
запрошення (offers) Can I/we do anything for you? (неформальне) Shall I/we do it for you? (формальне) Would you like me to help you?  
пропозиції (suggestions) Shall we dance? I/We can go now if you like. We could leave if you want.     He could have consulted a lawyer.
заборона (prohibition) You can’tsmoke there. (вам не дозволено) You mustn’t smoke there. (це заборонено) You may not smoke there. (формальне) They couldn’t smoke there. (їм не було дозволено)  
обов’язок (duty) Everyone must obey the law. People ought to be more tolerant. (Це добре, але вони не завжди це роблять.) All the villagers had to obey the law. He ought to have been more tolerant. (Це було добре, але вони цього не зробили.)


Prepositions after Particular Words and Expressions

afraid of Are you afraid of spiders?
agree with agree about agree on agree to I entirely agree with you. He left the firm because he didn’t agree with their sales policy. We agree about most things. Let’s try to agree on a date. I’ll agree to your suggestion if you lower the price.
arrive at (in) What time do we arrive at Cardiff? When did you arrive in England?
depend on independent of We may play footfall – it depends on the weather.
die of (from) More people died of flu in 1919 than were killed in this war. A week after the accident de died from his injuries.
divide into The book is divided into three parts.
drive into Granny drove into a tree again yesterday.
explain smth to smb Could you explain this rule to me?
get in (to), out of (car, taxi, small boat) When I got into my car, I found the radio had been stolen.
get on (to), off (train, plane, bus, ship, bike, horse) We’ll be getting off the train in ten minutes.
impressed with/by I’m very impressed with/by your work.
interest / interested in When did your interest in social work begin? Not many people are interested in grammar.
(a) lack of, (to) lack Lack of time prevented me from writing. Your mother lacks tact.
laugh at I hate being laughed at.
listen to If you don’t listen to people, they won’t listen to you.
look at look after look for Stop looking at me like that. Thanks for looking after me when I was ill. Can you help me look for my keys?
operate on They operated on her yesterday evening.
pay for Excuse me, sir. You haven’t paid for your drink.
pleased with smb pleased with/about/at smth The boss is very pleased with you. I wasn’t very pleased with/about/at my exam results.
proof of I want proof of your love. Lend me some money.
reason for (not of) Nobody knows the reason for the accident.
remind of She reminds me of a girl I was at school with.
responsible/responsibility for Who’s responsible for the shopping this week?
run into (= meet) I ran into Philip at Victoria Station this morning.
search search for (= look for) They searched everybody’s luggage. The customs were searching for drugs at the airport.
shocked at/by I was terribly shocked at/by the news of Peter’s accident.
sorry about sorry for/about I’m sorry about your exam results. I’m sorry for/about breaking your window.
speak to/with Could I speak to/with your father for a moment?
surprised at/by Everybody was surprised at/by the weather.
think of/about I’m thinking of/about studying medicine.
translate into (not in) Could translate this into Greek for me?


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