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Text G Science and technology in Ukraine




For a long time science in Ukraine developed as a part of the scientific efforts of the former Soviet Union. However, it had its own Academy of Sciences, founded in 1918 by Hetman Skoropadsky. Since 1994 it has been called the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Ukraine has contributed many outstanding scientists to the world. In the 15th-17th centuries they were the talented physician Yury of Drohobych and linguists and linguists L.Zyzaniy and P.Berynda. The beginning of the 17th century was also marked by the creative activity of the prominent linguist M.Smotrytsky whose “Slavic Grammar” became the basis of grammars of many Slavic languages. In the 18th century the main scientific centre of Ukraine was the Kyivo-Mohyla Academy whose most famous representatives of that time were N. Maksymovich and O.Shumlyansky. The 19th and 20th centuries produced such outstanding scientists as the mathematicians M.Ostrogradsky and A. Pohorelov, the linguists O. Bodynsky, A.Potebnya, the historians V.Antonovich, M.Hrushevsky and D.Bahaliy, the orientalist A.Krumsky, the geologist P.Tutkovsky, the physicians V.Obraztsov, M.Strazhesko, V.Filatov, the lawyer M.Vasylenko and many others.

Ukrainians are also proud ofthe fact that only several months after the nucleus of the atom was split by the English physicists G.Cockroft and E.Walton in 1932, the same result was achieved in one of the laboratories of Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology headed by I.Kurchatov and A. Ioffe. It was the first split of an atom in the USSR and a great success of Soviet scientists. Nobel Prize laureate Academician Lev Landau worked for many years, heading the Institute of Physics and Technology. Another Nobel Prize laureate Ilya Mechnicov was born in Kharkiv region, studied in Kharkiv National University and worked there for a long time. The first electronic computing machine in Europe was designed by our countryman S. Lebedev in 1951. The famous astronomer Academisian Mykola Barabashov worked in Kharkiv Observatory and made significant discoveries concerning Mars, Moon and Venis. Ukrainian scientists made their contribution into the development of space explorations. The Southern Machine Building plant and Kharkiv “Khartron” designed and launched hundreds of artificial Earth satellites ncluding the famous “Zenith”.

The world famous Ukrainian scientists are Volodymir Vernadsky and Yevhen Paton.

Volodymyr Vernadsky was the first President of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. He was a prominent naturalist, mineralogist, the founder of geochemistry and biochemistry, the creator of the biosphere theory. Together with Oleksander Fersman he was the first to suggest the use of radioactivity in studying geological processes . He was also the first to estimate the age of the most ancient elements of the Earth surface as being 4,5 billion years old.

Yevhen Paton was an outstanding Ukrainian constructor, famous for his contribution in bridge-building and welding. He studied Engineering in Dresden (Germany) and St.Petersburg, and in 1904 became a professor of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute where he headed the bridge-testing laboratory. Evhen Paton designed over 35 bridges, including the famous bridge across the Dnipro River that was named after him. He is also considered to be the father of electronic welding. The Institute of Electronic Welding the director of which Evhen Paton had been till his very death, developed his theory and mastered the highly productive hidden welding technique which is used world –wide.

 

 
 
Unit 7 Topic:The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Text:The United Kingdom . Geography and Climate. The Government of Great Britain  

 


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