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Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о том, в каких странах ученые работали над созданием телеграфной связи, какие трудности встретились при этом. Перескажите.




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Telegraph

Benjamin Franklin, an American who is famous for his inter­esting and useful inventions, published his ideas about electricity in 1752. Scientists in many countries became interested in this won­derful form of energy. They wanted to find the answer to a very im­portant question: could the electricity be used to develop a fast, efficient system of long-distance communication? Experiments proved that electricity could travel instantly over a very long piece of wire. But a note that was written on a piece of paper couldn't be put into a wire. How could electricity be used to send a message? A Danish scientist discovered that electricity could move a needle from left to right and that the needle could be pointed at letters on a piece of paper. Then a German government worker made up a code system that could be used with an electric needle. In 1837 two English scientists sent a message by electric telegraph for a distance of more than 1.6 kilometers.


Samuel Morse, an American portrait painter, was experiment­ing with an electric telegraph too. At first he connected a pencil to an electric wire. When the electricity came through the wire the pencil made wavy lines. Then Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for the letters of the alphabet. Finally, he discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they could be sent in sound.

On May 24, 1844, the first long-distance message was sent by telegraph for 64 kilometers.

Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By 1861 tele­graph wires stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe too, Samuel Morse's system became popular.

But telegraph wires couldn't be hung over an ocean. Messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship — a journey of two or three weeks. A new method was needed.

The Atlantic Telegraph Company which was organized in 1856 wanted to try to lay a cable on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. The 4,000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland.

Later cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900 transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.



Text 4C

Прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Какие биографические факты из жизни изобретателя телефона приве­дены в тексте?

2. Какие другие факты, кроме приведенных, вы знаете об изобретателе телефона?

3. Что нового вы узнали из текста? Соотнесите факты, относящиеся к истории развития телефонной связи, со следующими датами: 1877 г. и 1915 г.

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor, he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people (глухих). The subjects that he studied at school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander's mother was a painter and a musi­cian. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.

When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy's school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people as his father.


He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments.



At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pu­pils contributed money for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to build a machine that peo­ple could use to talk to one another over long distances. After two years, the two young men were becoming discouraged (опустились руки). Then, one day, when they were working on a new transmit­ter Alexander spilled some acid (пролить кислоту) on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire to a receiver on the table! The voice was Alexander Bell's! It was saying: «Come here, Mr. Wat­son. I need you!»

The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. By 1915 a telephone line was opened in the United States — 5,440 kilome­ters from New York to San Francisco.

Now design bureaus all over the world are conducting experi­ments to develop video-phone or picture phone. A young man in Moscow wants to speak to his friend in Vladivostok. He lifts his telephone receiver, dials a number. After a very short time his friend answers. As he picks up his receiver, his picture appears on the screen. They can speak to each other face to face because they are using a new kind of telephone which may be called «a video-phone». In addition to the usual telephone, the equipment includes a small television screen (14 cm by 13 cm) and, combined with the screen, a television camera. The camera tube will allow the user to switch from a wide view of the room to the face of the per­son speaking. The focus can be changed to give clear pictures of objects 0.3,0.9 and 6.0 meters away from the camera. There is also a mirror attachment, which allows the camera to scan documents which may be lying on the table. The camera adjusts itself auto­matically to different lighting conditions.

Text4D


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