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Упражнение 24. Найдите в колонке В эквиваленты словосочетаниям из колонки А.
Упражнение25. Найдите антонимы.
simple, untrue, begin, sophisticated, reliable, efficient, close to, true, complete, low, disadvantage, far from, high, unreliable, inefficient, advantage.
Упражнение26. Переведите выделенные слова и запомните их.
1. In the past «Engineer» meanta designer of engines. 2. The word «a means» means«средство». 3. The meaning of«telemetry» is «measuring at a distance» and is a combination of Greek and Latin words. 4. By meansof satellites we can communicate with any country of the world. 5. There were no means ofdirect communication before the telephone was invented. 6. By communication we meanvarious ways to send information. 7. Scientists reported that we had technical meansto use more channels on a TV set. 8. The importance of space meansof communication is increasing every year. 9. By what meansis speech transmitted over a distance? 10. By means oftelephone people communicate with each other at great distances. 11. The meandistance between these two objects is not known yet.
Упражнение 27.Заполните пропуски словами few или a few.
1. ... people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Bayron's daughter. 2. In the past astronomers spent all their lives to make ... hundred thousand calculations. 3. A calculator makes these calculations in ... seconds. 4. In the next ... years a
new generation computer will be developed. 5. ... people read that the first electric light illuminated the laboratory of Vasily Petrov, a St. Petersburg physicist, in 1862.
Упражнение 28.Обратите внимание на перевод слова which.
1. In our institute the study of theory is linked with practical training, which is very important for future engineers. 2. Students have industrial training at various plants, which allows them not only to watch production processes, but also to take part in production. 3. It is now possible to find a book or an article in this library very quickly, which is extremely important for specialists. 4. Pierre Curie studied the properties of crystals, which led him to the discovery of the piezoelectric phenomenon.
Упражнение 29.Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на неопределенные местоимения.
1. There are some students in the room now. 2. Are there any students in the classroom now? 3. Everybody knows that one can find any book in the Lenin library, 4. There are no students in the classroom now. 5. I was looking for the new reference book on physics everywhere, but couldn't find it. 6.1 must have some paper, I can't write anything. 7. This man knows something, but he does not want to tell us. 8.1 have seen you somewhere before. 9. No one said anything to us about it at the meeting. 10. In our institute library I always find everything I need. 11. We could park our car nowhere. 12. They found nobody at home. 13. I have been nowhere this summer. I had no vacation. 14. Every faculty at our institute has a computer.
Упражнение 30.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. won, rung, driven, run, fed, laid, read
Упражнение 31.Прочитайте и переведите без словаря.
Let's look at the progress the computers have made in their development. Besides the great changes in size and speed, we now have machines which change numbers into pictures, words and sounds. The next big change will be when we get computers that will understand human language. But now if you want to programme your own computer, you must learn its language. It does not understand yours. For example you talk with an Englishman. You make one small grammar mistake «have» instead of «has». The man understands what you mean and the talk goes on. But if you make even the smallest mistake in computer language, the talk breaks down and you must go back to the beginning.
Exercise 1.Answer the questions.
1. What influences the operation of an integrated circuit? (the quality of microscopic components it consists of) 2. What is the function of a computer? (making a great number of calculations at a very high speed) 3. What will be the speed of the fifth-generation computers? (100 billion operations a second) 4. What can increase the operation speed many times compared to the present computers? (a photon) 5. What physical phenomenon can be used to improve a computer's speed? (light) 6. What are the advantages of light for computation purposes over electronics? (the capability to move faster, in parallel lines and pass one another)
Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts.
1. Nowadays electronic devices
2. We are surrounded
3. There are
4. A personal computer
5. People are carried by
6. The modern production is unthinkable
7. It is impossible to imagine
1. airplanes, ships, trains and cars
2. is being used more widely at
3. without electronically con
4. with electronics everywhere in
5. scientific research without
6. are in general usage.
7. electronic watches we wear,
Exercise 3.Read and learn.
Mary: Have you seen an interesting advertisement (реклама) in the last issue of «The Economist»?
John: I have not read it yet.
M.: The School of Engineering offers a new programme in infor-
mation system. Applications are invited for jobs in this field.
J.: Professor Smith has told me about it. This programme is
interesting. It is designed to meet the needs of persons with a computing background for their work in management and industry.
M.: Don't you think that our son can lecture on this new
J.: Why not? He graduated from the Department of Compu-
ter Science and for some years was taking part in the research project connected with the problems of supercomputers and their manufacturing.
M.: As far as I remember his research interests cover software
(программное обеспечение) and application.
J.: And what do they say about the contract?
M.: It is a three years' contract and it may be extended for fur-
ther two years. I'll write Mike a letter.
J.: It's too long. You'd better call him.
A.: How do you like these new electronic games?
В.: I am crazy (mad) about them. And you?
A.: Really, I don't know what you see in them.
В.: Well, I think a real computer game resembles real life as
closely as possible, doesn't it?
В.: Oh, but I find them rather relaxing for a change and try to
spend every spare (свободное) minute playing.
Exercise 4.Speak about:
1. The application of electronics in everyday life,
2. New developments in computers.
Use exercise 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to be in general usage, research is going on, throughout the world, further development, high speed electronic circuits of the highest quality, according to some researchers, a photon computer, by means of light, advantage over, in a few decades.
Exercise 5.Comment on the following statement.
Electronic games are very popular today. There are already up to 10,000 different computer games in the world.
Exercise 6.Read and smile.
Andrew Jackson's Poor Health
After his wife died Andrew Jackson, former President of the United States, became increasingly irritable (раздражительный). He also worried (беспокоиться) more and more about his health.
Several members of his family had died after a paralytic stroke (паралич) and Jackson was sure he was going to die in the same way. He therefore lived in daily fear (страх) of getting such a stroke. One day, during a party at his home, he was playing chess with a young woman. Suddenly Jackson's hands dropped to his side, his face became white. Several friends run to him. «At last it has come», Jackson said weakly. «I have had a stroke. My whole right side is completely paralyzed.» «How do you know?» someone asked. «Because», Jackson said, «in the last few minutes I have pinched (ущипнуть) my leg several times and there is absolutely no sensation in it». «Oh, I beg your pardon, sir», said the young woman he played with, «but it was my leg you were pinching.»
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию об использовании компьютеров в повседневной жизни и работе людей. Выпишите и переведите определительные придаточные предложения.
Computers Concern You
When Ch. Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812, he could hardly have imagined the situations we find ourselves in today. Almost everything in modern world is done with the help of computers — the complicated descendants (потомки) of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better memories and can store (запоминать) great amount of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time required by a human mathematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but a modern computer can.
In fact, computers can do many things we do, but faster and better. They can control machines at factories, work out tomorrow's weather and even play chess, write poetry or compose music. Let's look now at some of the ways in which computers concern people in their daily lives and work.
Many people associate computers with the world of science and mathematics, but they are also a great help to scholars in other subjects: in history, literature and so on. It is now possible for a scholar to find a book or an article he needs very quickly, which nowadays when a million or more new books are published each year is quite an advantage. You tell the computer which subject
you are interested in and it produces any microfiche (микрофише, диамикрокарта) you need in seconds.
There are also systems which are being developed to translate articles from foreign magazines by computer and to make up many lists of information which are needed in a modern library. So, computer can help us to deal with the knowledge explosion in many ways. One can imagine a time when libraries will be run by computers, without human beings at all.
Or, let's take another example. When a man drives a car for long distances he has two problems: to keep the car at a constant speed and watch that he does not run into the car in front of him. Engineers are now experimenting with a system which has a computer control of these two problems. The car's computer keeps the speed constant. At the same time the distance between the car and any other car in front of it is measured by a beam of light transmitted forwards. The beam meets the rear reflectors of the car in front and it is reflected back, which enables to measure the distance. This information is fed to the computer which adjusts (регулировать) its speed control accordingly.
Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Кратко изложите основное содержание текста по-английски.
Sir Isaac Newton was a supergenius of science who among other things invented calculus (исчисление), stated the laws of gravity and optics. But it turned out (оказываться) Newton also made mistakes. The University of Chicago announced recently that R. Garusto, 23, a physicist, had discovered in one of Newton's calculations an error that had been undetected for three centuries.
The young scientist discovered it while he was studying Newton's masterpiece (шедевр) of physics «Principia» (1687). Newton had derived (выводить) a figure for the Earth's mass based on his new theory that a single force — gravity — governed (управлять) falling bodies on the Earth and the motion of planets around the Sun. The calculation depended on the angle (угол) between two lines from the Earth to the Sun, but because that angle was not exactly known at the time, Newton used slightly different figures in «Principia». It was that mistake that the young scientist found, a discovery that was soon confirmed (подтвердить) by other physicists. The mistake has no influence on Newton's theory, but its discovery was enough to get him a prize from the University of Chicago.
Прочитайте текст и расскажите по-английски, из каких зданий состоит комплекс Библиотеки Конгресса и каким известным деятелям посвящено каждое из них. Найдите предложения со словами houses и numbers, переведите и запомните их значения.
The Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the Nation's library in the USA. It serves not only to members and committees of the Congress, but to libraries throughout the USA and the world and to the scholars, researchers and scientists who use it.
Its foundation was laid in 1815 when President Thomas Gef-ferson offered his personal library accumulated for 50 years and considered one of the best in the United States at that time as the basis for a great national library.
Now the Library of Congress complex on Capital Hill includes three buildings. The Thomas Gefferson Building, which has been built in Italian Renaissance style, is the oldest of them. It was the largest and costliest (роскошный) library building in the world when it was completed in 1897. It is decorated with splendid sculpture, murals (фрески) created by 50 American artists. Its Main Reading Room is 160 feet high.
The Room houses a collection of 45,000 reference books (справочники), a part of the extensive main catalog of more than 23 million cards and desks for 212 readers. The Computer Catalog Center provides public access (доступ) to the Library's automated catalog.
The simply designed John Adams Building faced with white marble (мрамор) was opened in 1939. Sculptures on its large bronze doors represent 12 famous writers.
The white marble James Madison Memorial Building opened in 1980 more than doubled the Library's available Capitol Hill space. The building which is the official memorial to the Nation's fourth President contains the James Madison Memorial Hall, exhibition areas, eight reading rooms, offices and storage areas for collections which number over 50 million items (предметов).
Упражнение 1. А.Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста 5А и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов в данном контексте.
1. the word«electronics» is in general usage
2. more perfectelectronic circuits
3. billionsof operations
4. what can be regardedas
5. the still youthful electronic age
В. Подберите к каждому выделенному в А слову или словосочетанию соответствующее ему по значению.
a. excellent, exact, accurate
b. combination of written symbols forming vocabulary of a
d. great or long period of time with special characteristics
e. one thousand million (GB), 109 (US)
Упражнение 2.Прочитайте текст и найдите эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:
3. not likely to change
4. signal to ring a bell at a fixed (certain) time
5. divide into two equal parts
6. watch that is used to time sport events, such as a race, to a fraction (small part) of a second
7. a place between the hand and the arm
8. not fast, slowly
9. smth. that helps smb. to remember, not to forget
10. start or begin a process
11. Hertz (Hz)
In a digital watch the mechanical parts of the traditional mechanical wristwatch have been replaced by a vibrating quartz crystal to keep time. The vibrating quartz crystal is controlled by minute electronic circuits. One of the advantages of quartz is that it is very stable. The artificial quartz crystals used in digital watches are designed to vibrate up to 32,768 cycles per second when the current from a battery is passed through them.
These vibrations produce electric pulses. As the pulses travel through the electronic circuits of the microchip, their rate is gradually halved. The result is a pulse rate of one per second.
Each one-second pulse triggers the microchip to send signals to the liquid crystal display to advance the numerals by one second. The pulses are also used to control different functions. Such a digital watch can show the day and date; it can have an alarm and a reminder and can act as a stopwatch with an accuracy of 1/100th second.
Упражнение 3.Прочитайте следующие определения компьютерных терминов, дайте русские эквиваленты выделенных слов и словосочетаний. Переведите предложения.
1. Hardwaremeans the different types of equipment a computer consists of.
2. A computer's hardware comprises a central processing unit (CPU)which is the heart and brain of the computer.
3. Input and output devicescapable of putting information into a computer and getting it out of it are types of peripheral equipment. Peripheralsare the units connected to the CPU: input devices, output devices and storage devices.
4. The simplest and most common type of input device is a keyboard, containing a typewriter keyboard.
5. A laser printeris a kind of output device to print information.
6. Softwaremeans the programs needed to operate computer equipment.
7. These programs are on disks,the hard disksinside the computer, or floppy disks,or on CD-ROMs,that is, Compact Disk Read Only Memory, which you can put on or store a large amount of information. A diskis a storage device made of flat circular plates with magnetizable surfaces. A hard diskis a disk made from a solid magnetic material and used as a storage device. A floppy disk(also called diskette) is a disk made of flexible plastic material upon which data are stored on magnetic tracks. Tracksare areas marked on the surface of a disk. A disk driveis the electronic mechanism that actually reads what is on a disk. In hard disks, the disk and the drive are built into a single unit.
8. A word processoris a computer used to write documents, letters and reports, or the software that is used for this purpose.
9. Databasesare programs, which allow you to store, look at or change a large quantity of information quickly and easily.
10. Graphicsare pictures and symbols a computer program can produce.
11. An extra copy on a floppy disk is called a back-up copy,a copy of data or software, usually kept in case the original disk is damaged or destroyed.
12. A bugpossible in a computer operation, also a virus is a software problem or error in a program. Debuggingmeans correcting program errors or bugs.
13. People send e-mail(electronic mail) messages with the help of the Internet,a system that lets computers connect by telephone lines.
14. A laptopis a portable computer weighing about 2—4 kg.
15. With a device called the mouseyou can do a number of things by clickingon different icons.
16. A mouseis a small input device, on the top of which there are one or more buttons for communicating with the computer.
17. Clickingis a basic mouse action to place a cursor to close a window, etc.
18. An iconis a small picture representing an object, process or function.
Упражнение 4.Заполните пропуски, образуя общеизвестные компьютерные термины. Запомните их.
1. data ...
2. integrated ... or chip
3. soft ...
4. ... ROM
5. hard ...
6. floppy ...
7. ... disk
8. input, output ...
9. super ...
10. physical ...
11. ... network
12. mini ...
13. ... copy
14. fifth ... computer
15. ... processor
17. ... age
18. photon ...
19. ... writer
20. key ...
21. laser ...
22. mini ...
Упражнение 5.Заполните таблицу на словообразование.
Упражнение 6.Назовите прилагательные с суффиксом -ible/-able9 означающие:
1) that can be done, can exist, happen;
2) that cannot be done, cannot exist, happen;
3) that can be used;
4) that may be obtained, can be used;
5) that may be relied on;
6) that cannot be relied on;
7) which may be questioned;
8) which may not be questioned;
9) absolutely essential.
Упражнение 7.Заполните таблицу на словообразование.
Упражнение 8. А.Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и выражений на тему «Computer».
В. Speak about:
1. A lot of people are becoming computer literate(have experience of working with computers and know how to use them). Are you computer literate? Do you find most computers «user-friendly»(easy to use)?
2. The Internet and its influence on our daily life. Can it help people from different countries to learn English?
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