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LESSON 6




Читайте также:
  1. Ex.1. Complete the examples with the key words from this lesson.
  2. II. Find in the text of the lesson terminological word-combinations consisting of two or more components. Translate them into Ukrainian.
  3. III. Make dialogues using words, word-combinations and expressions from this lesson. Work in pairs.
  4. LESSON 1
  5. Lesson 1
  6. Lesson 1. BREAKING THE ICE
  7. LESSON 10
  8. LESSON 12
  9. Lesson 13. Means of Travelling
  10. Lesson 2. Daily LIFE

 

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты  
Глагол to cause    
Сочетания по longer, because of, due to, thanks to
Суффиксы -ness; -апсе/епсе; -ist; -ful; -less
Text 6А. Made in Space    
Text 6В. Composite Ceramics    
Text 6С. Ancient Steel-Making Secret  
Text 6D. The British Museum    

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1.Прочитайте диалоги, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов.

A: You can do without lots of things. B: You can't do without food or water.

A: Oh, yes, you can! You can do without food for weeks and with­out water for days. B: Well, you can't do without air or only for a very short time.

A: Can you write without a pen? B: No, of course, I can't.

A: I must have a new dictionary.

B: Why must you? You don't need a new dictionary. You've got a lot of dictionaries.

A: I want to see Mr. Z.

B: I am sorry. I am afraid he may not be in.


But perhaps he may be.

No, sir. He may not be back for some time.

I can wait.

He may not be in until twelve.

I can wait until he is in.

He may be out all day.

May I go to the cinema?

No, not today, tomorrow.

May not I go today? Zed can't come tomorrow. May I go home

with Zed afterwards?

Oh, no, you mustn't do that.

Why, mustn't I?

Because you mustn't be home late.

Well, then, may Zed come home with me?

Yes, he may do that.

May I have the money, please.

Oh, very well.

Упражнение 2.Замените модальные глаголы соответствующими эквива­лентами.

1. Students must take exams in January. 2. She can speak French well. 3. You may take this book till tomorrow. 4. We must learn new words every week. 5.1 live not far from my work. I can go by bus or I can walk. 6. You may come in. 7. We can take this book from the li­brary. 8. She cannot do this work in time. 9. He must go to St. Pe­tersburg for a few days. 10. We can see electrical devices everywhere.

Упражнение 3.Поставьте предложения в вопросительной и отрицатель­ной формах.

1. We were able to read that article in the library. 2. Some stu­dents will be permitted to take exams in December. 3. You have to read this book. 4. We shall be able to skate in winter. 5. My friend is to take part in the conference. 6. The students of our group had to go to the plant last week. 7. They were allowed to continue their research.



Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод модальных глаголов.

1. Everyone should know a foreign language. 2. To make supercomputers, we need highly developed electronics and new materials. 3. One should do one's work in time. 4. The students ought to know the history of their institute. 5. The development of


new materials does not mean that old materials should lose their significance. 6. Marie Curie needed a laboratory and equipment for her research. 7. Every institute ought to be proud of their famous graduates. 8. One should know that «roentgen» is a unit (единица) of radiation.

Упражнение 5.Замените would на used to, где возможно, и переведите.

1. Не would spend hours in the Tretyakov Gallery. 2. Tsiolkov-sky believed that rockets would be used for space travel. 3. Bell and Watson would repeat their experiments many times. 4. It became known that a new car would be shown at the exhibition. 5. Elec­tricity would pass through metals, but wouldn't pass through wood. 6. I asked my friend to help me, but he wouldn't, he said I could do everything without his help. 7. He would work in the li­brary when he was getting ready for his exam.



Упражнение 6.Выберите правильный модальный глагол или его экви­валент.

можно вычислить — (must, can, should) calculate; быть в со­стоянии выполнить — (have to, be able to, be allowed to) carry out; нельзя предсказать — (can't, needn't, be not able to) predict; должны начаться в 10 — (have to, may, be to) begin at 10; следует знать — (should, may, need) know; не нужно созда­вать — (may not, needn't, should not) create; необходимо ис­пользовать — (must, be allowed, may) use; можно взять эту книгу — (must, can, may) take this book; упорно не желать сде­лать — (need, wouldn't, must) do.

Упражнение7. Переведите предложения.

1. Он может читать и писать по-английски. 2. Она должна сделать эту работу в конце месяца. 3. Теперь студенты могут войти в аудиторию. 4. Она может заниматься здесь. 5. Он дол­жен прочитать эту статью. 6. Можно мне взять ваш учебник? 7. Я должен пойти в библиотеку и взять книги. 8. Можно мне поехать с вами? 9. Умеет (может) этот ребенок ходить? 10. Вы должны вернуть книгу завтра.

Упражнение 8.Переведите выделенные словосочетания.

1. It was found thatproton and neutron have almost the same weight. 2. It was necessaryto lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean as there were no radio or satellites at that time. 3. It is difficultto imagine the world we live in without radio, telephone and televi-




sion. 4. It is possibleto have a direct telephone talk with Vladivo­stok with the help of satellite systems. 5. This material has proper­ties which make it usefulfor various space projects. 6. It should be said thatcomputers become increasingly important in our life and work. 7. My adviser considers it necessaryfor me to read as much literature as possible before starting my work. 8. It is difficultto name all the branches of science and technology which are based on electronics. 9. It is well-known that«watt» is a unit named after James Watt, an inventor from Scotland. 10. It is impossibleto solve many modern complex engineering problems without the help of computers.

Упражнение 9.Укажите, чем выражено отрицание. Переведите.

1. Popov had no support from the government to continue his research. 2. Not long ago chemists developed new materials that could withstand high temperatures. 3. No system of measurement of the past is as simple as the metric system. 4. It is no longer possi­ble to put off the solution of ecological problems. 5. Tsarist Russia gave no money for Tsiolkovsky's research. 6. No one is allowed to smoke in our office. 7. There is no doubt (несомненно) that the development of electronics is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. 8. Haifa century is not a long period in the history of civ­ilization. 9. Before Newton no one could explain why the planets moved around the Sun. 10. People no longer think of radio and television as something fantastic.

Упражнение 10.Переведите предложения с составными предлогами due to, thanks to, because of.

1. Ships can communicate over long distances due to the radio. 2. Because of the earth's rotation there are days and nights on the earth. 3. Thanks to the radio it is possible to transmit human voice across the globe. 4. Due to the latest achievements in electronics it has become possible to develop supercomputers. 5. Because of their long life solar and atomic batteries are used to supply power to transmitters in spacecrafts. 6. Thanks to the development of radio telescopes radio astronomy has made great achievements. 7. Our century can be called «Space Age» because of the development of a new branch of science and technology — cosmonautics.

Упражнение 11.Переведите предложения, обратив внимание на слово much перед прилагательным в сравнительной степени.

1. We don't notice the gravitational pull of a book because the pull of the earth is much greater. 2. The speed of computer opera-


tions will be much greater in the future. 3. Graphite which with­stands much higher temperatures is one of the best materials for reactors. 4. When a spaceship is in space, much smaller energy is needed for its movement.

Упражнение 12.Переведите предложения и запомните значения глагола to cause.

1. Heating causes different changes in metals. 2. A Danish scien­tist discovered that electricity caused the needle to move from left to right. 3.Vibration not only causes noise but can also break mate­rials and structures. 4. The space flight of Gagarin caused a sensa­tion throughout the world. 5. Rutherford showed that positive charge of a nucleus was caused by protons. 6. New achievements in mathematics caused the development of new means of computer­ization.

Упражнение 13.Найдите английские эквиваленты для русских словосо­четаний.

в большем масштабе; пилотируемые и непилотируемые космические аппараты; проводить эксперимент; на борту кос­мического корабля; преимущества состояния невесомости; условия невесомости; материалы нового поколения; получить полезные и ценные данные.

carry out experiments; zero gravity conditions; at a larger scale; zero-gravity state advantages; on board a spacecraft; manned and unmanned space vehicles; obtain useful and valuable data; new generation materials.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 14. А.Образуйте и переведите следующие производные сло­ва согласно образцу:

существительное + -ful = прилагательное use польза -> useful полезный power, skill, success;

существительное + -less = прилагательное use польза -> useless бесполезный change, noise, water, help, end;

прилагательное + -ness = абстрактное существительное weightless невесомый -> weightlessness невесомость useful, dark, hard, weak;


существительное или прилагательное + -ist = существительное science наука scientist — ученый special, art, motor, biology.

В. Переведите существительные с суффиксами -апсе/-епсе :

resistance — сопротивление consequence, distance, appearance, difference, absence, presence.

Упражнение 15.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

surprise [ss'praiz], substance ['SAbstens], magnetic [maeg'netik], laser ['leize], polymer ['polime], plastics ['plaestiks], experiment [iks'periment], orbital ['o:bitl], expert ['ekspe:t], start [sta:t], simulate ['Simjulaleit], principle ['prinsipl], gravitatio­nal [,graevi'teijenl], convection [ken'vekfen], temperature ['tempntjs], zero-gravity ['zisreu'graeviti], hydromechanical ['haidreumi'kaenikel], acceleration [эк,5е1э'ге1/эп], project ['procfeekt].

Упражнение 16.Прочитайте слова.

label [leibl], material [me'tienel], alloys ['aeloiz], peculiar [pi'kju:lje], numerous ['nju:meres], pave [peiv], vehicle ['vi:ikl], inertia [I'neijje], process ['preuses], Archimedes [,a:ki'mi:di:z], consequently ['konsikwentli], separate ['sepsreit], component [kem'peunent], quite [kwait], gases [gaesiz], cause [ko:z], research [ri'seitfl, biochemist Lbaieu'kemist], biological [,bai9u'logik9l], special ['spe/sl].


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