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Approach




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  1. Any topic in psychology can be approached from a variety of perspectives, thus there are many approaches in psychology. Match the following approaches with their descriptions.
  2. Approaching the Text: Surveying
  3. Approaching the Text: Using prior knowledge and making predictions
  4. B) REQUEST EXPECTED APPROACH TIME
  5. PRECISION APPROACH NOT AVAILABLE DUE (reason) (alternative instructions)
  6. REQUEST STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH
  7. REQUEST VISUAL APPROACH

a. coming near to

b. approximation, a way to solve a problem
с way, path, road

Sustain

a. enable to keep up, maintain

b. suffer, undergo
с keep from falling

Relay

a. supply of fresh horses to take the place of tired ones

b. device which receives signals and transmits them with greater
strength, thus increasing the distance over which they are
carried

с place from which radio programs are broadcast after being received from another station


payload

a. passengers and cargo, but not fuel

b. bomb in a missile

с crew and instruments of a spaceship item

a. each single thing, part or object in a list

b. detail or paragraph (of news)
с number of a program

Off-the-shelf

a. commercially available

b. ready to use

с possible or likely

Упражнение 3.Заполните пропуски словами. А.

capacity as well laser information light existing advantage space doubt amplified cost conventional

Optical fibres are made of glass and use (1) ... (usually from a (2) ... ) to transmit messages. There is no (3) ... optical fibre sys­tems have enormous (4) ... over (5) ... transmission systems. They have a much higher (6) ... than copper wires, can carry much more (7) ... and have a potentially lower material (8) ... Besides, optical fibres occupy far less (9) ... The quality of transmission is high (10) ... The signal does not need to be (11)... as often as with (12) ... ca­bles. Optical fibres do not suffer from interference.

В.

heat treatment distance melt identify beams vaporize displays light communication

Nowadays, lasers are used to (1) ... targets in military uses. In engineering, powerful laser (2) ... can be focused on a small area. They can (3) ..., (4) ..., or (5) ... material in a very precise way. La­sers are ideal for (6) ... in space. Laser light can travel long (7) ... without losing signal strength. In medicine, laser beams can be used for the (8) ... of damaged tissue (ткань) in a fraction of a sec­ond without causing harm (вреда) to healthy tissue. In the arts, la­sers can provide fantastic displays of (9) ... Pop concerts are often accompanied by laser (10) ...


Упражнение 4.Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ки А и существительных из колонки В.




1. come to

2. overcome / encounter

3. record / store / carry

4. realize

5. place


В

a. information, data, sound

b. into orbit
с a project

d. reality

e. difficulties, differences


Упражнение 5.Заполните таблицу на словообразование.

 

Verb Noun Adjective
identify • • • ...
amplify idealization vaporous
  variety strong limitless
treat precision

Упражнение 6. А.Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «Laser applications».

В. Speak about:

Laser as a means of propulsion.


LESSON 11

Сложное подлежащее и сложное дополнение Значение слов either, neither и их сочетаний

Text ПА. Superconductivity

Text 11В.

Text ПС. New Hope for Energy

Text 11D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1.Переведите предложения со сложным дополнением.

1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Sci­entists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonu­clear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new «night vision» system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced as disks for music. 9. They believed him to be capable.



Упражнение 2.Найдите инфинитив в предложениях, переведите.

А. 1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we don't know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane «Ruslan» carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when


connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch on televi­sion cosmonauts work in space, «Lunokhod» move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games take place on the other side of the globe.

B. 1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Da­mascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break. 5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.



Упражнение 3.Обратите внимание на инфинитивный оборот, состоя­щий из предлога for, дополнения и инфинитива.

1. It was the only thing for us to do. 2. The students were wait­ing for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 3. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 4. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 5. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program.

Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения со сложным подлежащим.

A. 1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lec­
tures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to
have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced
by a new model of hypersonic aircraft in a few years. 4. Intensive
research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a
number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information
on crystal by means of a laser is known to have been developed by a
Russian researcher. 6. The annual output of personal computers is
expected to reach millions in the near future. 7. The laser is known
to be a device producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying
radiation. 8. Optical technology has been found to be cost-effec­
tive. 9. The optical equivalent of a transistor is reported to have
been produced.

B. 1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without
telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio
operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term «radar» is known to
be composed of the first letters of «radio, detection and ranging». It
happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an ob­
ject at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water proved
to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work.


5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A sys­tem of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of trans­mitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire.

С 1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our every­day life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to bring about new discoveries in science and technology.

Упражнение 5.Прочитайте, запомните выделенные слова.

Do you know what the words eitherand neithermean?

Yes, I do. Eithermeans каждый, любой, любой из двух,while

neitherstands for ни один, ни один (из).

That's correct. Can you give examples?

Yes I can. For example: There is a number of lecture rooms on eitherside of the corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technical article? You may use either.And in what way is eithertranslated when it is used with or?For instance: «Please, bring some dictionaries eitherfrom the library orfrom the reading room.» Either... or...means либо ... либо, или... или.Now let us speak about neither,it is the negative form of either,meaning ни тот... ни другой.For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neitherof them, as I did not like them. And neitherconnected with normeans ни... ни,for example: These problems seemed difficult neitherto my friend, norto me. Are these words used in any other way?

Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such as: «I don't like this book», said Peter. «Neitherdo I», said Ann, which means мне тоже(не нравится). I shall not go to the library to­morrow. He won't go either. Он тоже(не пойдет).

Упражнение 6.Переведите, обращая внимание на разные значения слов тоге и much.

1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car in­strument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more elec­tronic device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams, your brain will work much more efficiently.


5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consider­ation when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computer­ized system is much more efficient than those used previously. 7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolant and propellant make the so­lution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve. 8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration.

Упражнение 7.Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний.

the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific ad­vantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the man­kind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record of 23 K.

исследования особенно активизировались; исследования в области сверхпроводимости; теория, за которую они получи­ли Нобелевскую премию; привести человечество к ...; преиму­щество в науке; открытия в области физики; достигнутая рекордная отметка в 23 К; открытия, которые привели к...; преимущество могла бы получить нация (страна); ртутная проволока; вернуться в обычное состояние; пропуская элек­трический ток; внести большой вклад; неожиданное явление; они предложили (ввели) модель; прикладывая магнитное по­ле; модель оказалась эффективной.

Упражнение 8.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

prestige [pres'ti^], nation ['neijen], Nobel prize [neu'bel praiz], absolute zero ['aebsaluit 'ziarau], phenomenon [fi'nommen], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory ['Gieri], theorists ['Giensts], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model ['modi], metallic [mi'taelik], ceramic [si'raemik], colleagues ['koli:gz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate, extremely [iks'tri.mli], process ['preuses].

Упражнение 9.Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов:

latest [leftist], spectacular [spek'taekjule], breakthrough ['breik'Gru:], compare [кэт'реэ], award [9'wo:d], research


[ri's9:tn, mercury ['me:kjuri], wire ['waia], below [bilau], 5 °C ['faiv di'gri:z 'sentigreid], completely [kem'pli:tli], return [n'te:n], either ['aibe], finally ['fainali], Zurich ['zjuarik], previ­ously ['priivjasli], throughout [6ru:'aut], liquid [likwid], nitrogen ['naitracfean], lose [lu:z], moreover [mo:'rauva], lack [laek].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


current п -ток discover v -руживать finally adv introduce v

achievement п — достижение below adv — ниже, внизу benefit п — выгода, польза boil v — кипеть continue v — продолжать cool v — охлаждать

электрический

открывать, обна-

наконец вводить lack v — нуждаться likely adv — вероятно lose v — терять master v — овладевать moreover adv — более того pass v — пропускать


present v — представлять previously adv — ранее, предва­рительно

prominent а — выдающийся, известный

random а — беспорядочный, случайный

resistivity п — удельное сопро­тивление

return v — возвращаться satisfactory а — приемлемый, удовлетворительный suddenly adv — вдруг, внезапно sufficiently adv — достаточно tend v — стремиться, иметь тенденцию wire п — провод


at once — сразу, немедленно

Text 11А


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