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  1. Revision Exercises

Упражнение 1.Повторите причастия I, II, герундий и условные прида­точные предложения. Переведите.

1. Bob is very good at solving mathematical equations. 2. She has never done any computing. 3. We saw an old man lying on the road. 4. Being a disabled, he could not drive a car. 5. The train be­ing late, they decided to return home. 6. His favourite pastime is playing computer games. 7. Realizing the danger, they stopped. 8. The house rebuilt recently is very beautiful. 9. Look at the dis­played objects! Look at the objects being displayed! 10. Graphic artists like adding colour and depth to their drawings and designs. 11. Having completed the job, the man left early. 12. The task hav­ing been accomplished, the pilot returned to the base. 13. Having been rebuilt recently, the house is very attractive now. 14. Scien­tists are interested in developing new programming languages. 15. What do you think of the methods being used in these experi­ments? 16. Our engineers will discuss the methods used and the re­sults obtained. 17. Given certain conditions such work can be done by anybody. 18. The speed of a microprocessor is very important in processing information. 19. A fax machine is used for sending and receiving copies of original documents via a phone line. 20. Joy­stick is an input device especially helpful when playing computer games. 21. Distance measuring equipment now being used in all airplanes, pilots know exactly their position and speed. 22. Pro­vided electronic and radio navigation equipment had not been im­proved so radically in recent years, aircraft flying would not have been so reliable and efficient. 23. Manhattan, one of the New York boroughs, is not large in size and population, people coming there only for work, to the theaters, museums and clubs. 24. If you got tired while getting ready for your exam, you should break off for half an hour. 25. We learnt of the engineers' having invented a wheel-computerized system that monitors and adjusts air-pressure in tyres. 26. Most submersibles do not move very far from the sup­port ship, the connecting cables limiting their range. 27. Unless the internal combustion engine had been invented, the automobile in­dustry would not have begun to develop so rapidly all over the world. 28. When completed, the new dirigible will be the largest and the most powerful one. 29. Hundreds of radio navigation sta­tions being located at different places around the world, pilots are at constant link with them. 30. The principles of ecology are as real as those of aerodynamics. If an aircraft is to fly, it has to satisfy cer­tain criteria of thrust and lift. Similarly, if an economy is to keep up progress, it must satisfy the basic principles of ecology. If it does not, it will decline (приходить в упадок).

Упражнение 2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на грамматику уроков 7—9.

How It Works

Fuel warning light.Many cars have a fuel warning light. The level of fuel (petrol) in the tank being very low, this light switches on and the driver can see that he needs more petrol. How does this fuel warning light work?

The level of the fuel falling, the float moves downwards. When this happens, the arm also moves downwards and makes the lever touch an electrical contact, thus switching on the fuel light in the car.

Seeing the fuel warning light, the driver puts more petrol into the tank. This makes the fuel level rise and pushes the float up­wards. When risen, the float makes the arm move upwards and this causes the level to move upwards also. The fuel warning light then switches off.

A car cooling system.Most car engines are cooled by water. The water flows around the engine and then passes through the ra­diator. It then passes through the water pump and around the en­gine again.

Thus, there are several stages in this cycle:

1. Water flows around the engine. The engine is cooled and wa­ter is heated.

2. When heated, the hot water enters the radiator through the top hose (шланг).

3. Flowing down through the radiator, the hot water is cooled by air. The air is drawn through the radiator by a fan (вентилятор). This fan is turned by a belt, which is driven by the engine. The cool water leaves the radiator through the bottom hose. The water is pumped around the engine again.

Finding a fault in a car.If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things first: the battery, the fuel level and the spark plugs (свеча зажигания). It is easy to repair these faults. If the battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If the petrol tank is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if the gap in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, adjust it to the correct width.

If your car still doesn't start, the petrol pump may be broken, or the fuel pipe may be blocked. If the pump is broken, it must be re­paired or replaced. If the fuel pipe is blocked, take it off and unblock it.

If there is a loud click when you turn the key, the starter motor may be jammed (заклинивать). If it is, you can try to release it by pushing the car forwards and backwards (in 2nd gear). If the car still doesn't start, the starter motor should be repaired or replaced.

Упражнение 3.Заполните пропуски следующими словами:

flat be repaired click recharge faults battery clean tank empty replace fuel wide sparkplugs cooling backwards narrow forwards

1. In a car the flat battery, the empty fuel tank and the dirty spark plugs are the ... that can be easily eliminated. 2. If your car doesn't start, check the ... and the fuel ... . 3. If the battery is flat, try to ... or ... it. 4. If the ... tank is ... , fill it with petrol. 5. If the ... ... are dirty, ... them. 6. Adjust the gap in a spark plug if it is too ...

or too ... . 7. If the petrol pump is broken, it must............ 8. If the

tyres are ... , you should pump them up. 9. If you hear a loud ... , while turning the key, the starter motor may be jammed. 10. If it is jammed, try to move the car ... or .... 11. If the engine becomes too hot, there is a fault in the ... system.

Упражнение 4. А.Прочитайте текст.

Automotive Engines

Speaking about automotive engines one should say that the two most common types of engine for land vehicles are the petrol en­gine and the diesel engine.

Since petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines, they are cheaper. Therefore, most cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. Petrol engines are also less noisy than diesel en­gines. They usually go faster. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and last longer than petrol engines, and this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire.

There are two main types of petrol engine — 4-stroke and 2-stroke. All cars and larger motor-cycles use 4-stroke engines. But most smaller motorbikes use 2-stroke engines. These are lighter and smaller than 4-stroke engines, and are therefore cheaper.

B. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Which is the lightest of the three engines (2-stroke, 4-stroke or diesel)? 2. Which is the least expensive? 3. Which is the noisiest? 4. Which is the largest? 5. Which is the safest? Why? 6. Which has the lowest fuel consumption?

C. Speak about:

The main systems of a car.

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