1. Ex.1. Complete the examples with the key words from this lesson.
  2. II. Find in the text of the lesson terminological word-combinations consisting of two or more components. Translate them into Ukrainian.
  3. III. Make dialogues using words, word-combinations and expressions from this lesson. Work in pairs.
  4. LESSON 1
  5. Lesson 1
  6. Lesson 1. BREAKING THE ICE
  7. LESSON 10
  8. LESSON 12
  9. Lesson 13. Means of Travelling
  10. Lesson 2. Daily LIFE

as by -ize (-ise) over-Text 8A. A New Era for Aircraft Text 8B. The Return of the Dirigibles Text 8C. Off the Ground: How do We Find Where We are Going?

Text 8D. New York

1. , .

1. On detecting danger on the road the computer signals the driver. 2. Detecting an object in front of a car in the dark is the purpose of the night vision system. 3. One of the main problems of a driver on the road is keeping the speed constant and watching the cars ahead. 4. A new device for monitoring and adjusting air pressure in tires has recently been developed. 5. Before starting a car one must examine it carefully. 6. Computers are widely used for controlling all kinds of processes. 7. Alexander Bell's being a teacher of deaf people influenced his interest in sound and its transmission. 8. Samuel Morse's hobby was experimenting with electricity. 9. Driving a truck in the city is difficult.

2. .

1. One of the best ways of keeping the speed steady is using a computer for this purpose. 2. Newton's having made a mistake in his calculations has no influence on his theory. 3. On being turned

on the radar will warn the driver of stationary or slow-moving objects on the road. 4. Upon being heated the molecules begin moving very rapidly. 5. The white line in the centre of the road is one of the most effective means of controlling traffic. 6. On graduating from the University S.P. Korolev began working in the field of rocket design. 7. The function of a car computer is detecting and summing up the information about the road conditions. 8. Monitoring and adjusting air pressure in tires is one of the new developments of the car designers. 9. It is difficult to solve some of the present-day scientific and technological problems without using supercomputers. 10. On seeing a red light on a panel and on hearing a warning sound the driver should decrease the speed. 11. By picking up infrared rays emitted by objects ahead of the car an image-processing system produces different images of objects. 12. On studying for half an hour before an exam one should switch over to some other activity.

3. .

A. 1. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared, measures
were taken to limit their speed in many countries. 2. His having
measuredthe distance will enable him to calculate the intensity of
light. 3. The universal system of measuresand weights was worked
out by the French Academy of Science in 1791. 4. The distance
from the North Pole to the Equator was measured,one-fourth was
taken and divided into ten million equal parts. One of these parts
was called a measureor a meter.

B. 1. One of the earliest ideas to propel a vehicle usingmechan
ical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. 2. Having useda steam-
driven engine a French engineer built a three-wheeled vehicle for
two passengers. 3. At the end of the 19th century the useof cars was
still very limited. 4. Constant efforts are made to usestandard com
ponents for the cars. 5. The useof multi-cylinder engines greatly
increased the speed of cars. 6. N. Otto having usedthe gasoline en
gine, motor cars got the standard shape and appearance.

C. 1. Many timesAlexander Bell wanted to stop his experi
ments being unable to get any results. 2. Since ancient timespeople
dreamt of flying. 3. Four timesfive is equal to twenty. 4. There is
much more lithium on the earth than zinc, 130 timesmore than
cadmium. 5. The magnesium-lithium alloy is 1.5 timeslighter than
aluminium and 4.5 timeslighter than iron.

4. as.

1. People no longer think of the radio and television as something fantastic. 2. It was necessary to lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean as there was no radio or satellites at that time. 3. Rocket launching, concerts, football and tennis matches can be seen on TV as they occur. 4. As the operation of integrated circuits depends on microscopic components, the purity of all materials at the plant must be very high. 5. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors. 6. President T. Jefferson offered his personal library as the basis for the national library. 7. It is difficult for the first-year students to study at the institute as they do not know yet how to organize their work and time. 8. No system of the past was as simple as the metric system. 9. Such metals as iron, cobalt, and nickel are much more magnetic than any other known substances. 10. Cryogenic fuels such as liquid hydrogen are used to cool the aircraft surface. 11. Metallurgists are trying to make composite materials as strong and light as possible. 12. Measures must be taken to keep Moscow air as clean as possible. 13. Engineers are working at the problem of making computers as small as possible.

5. , by.

1. It should be said that according to estimates the production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars by 2030. 2. The best way to study before the exam is by changing one's activity every 30 minutes. 3. The first self-propelled vehicle in Russia was made by Kulibin in the 18-th century. 4. Driving a new Japanese car a driver will find his way even in Sahara by switching over to a navigation Earth satellite. 5. By 1960 the number of cars in the world has reached 60 million. 6. A driver may avoid collisions on the road by using a radar system. 7. Newton's great work Principia was published by Halley, the famous astronomer, who paid his own money for it. 8. The cosmonauts were told to increase their daily exercises by 30 minutes.

. . .

a new form of supersonic transport, prospective model, elongated fuselage, without horizontal stabilizer, cover the distance, less than two hours, overall length, overall aircraft weight, at high velocities, lower atmosphere, the skin is heated, the only way out,

one of the ways, combined engines, combined with, as economical as possible.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

. .

today's aircraft, ordinary aircraft, ordinary aircraft windows, passenger liner, future superliners of such a class, reliable hypersonic plane, look like a rocket, five times above the speed of sound, diameter of the fuselage, the front of the cabin, the skin is heated to a very high temperature, highly economical engines, new generation model.

7. :

+ ize/ise = special - specialize () computer, ideal, crystal, central;

over- (-; -) to heat - to overheat production, active, grow, estimate.

8. .

aviation, airplane, project, passenger, liner, model ['modi], fuselage ['fju:zila:3], horizontal stabilizer ['steibilaiza], rocket, distance, meter ['mi:ta], diameter [dai'aemita], cabin, technological, problem, thermodynamics ['9a:maudai'naemiks], aerodynamics ['saraudai'naemiks], per cent, efficiency [I'fifansi], extreme [iks'tri:m], temperature ['tempntfa], cryogenic ['kraiacfeenik].

9. .

supersonic ['sju:pa'sonik], hypersonic ['haipa'sonik], Paris ['paeris], Tokyo ['taukjau], plane [plein], hours ['auaz], reliable [ri'laiabl], combined [kam'baind], engine ['encfein], heat-insulat-

ing [hi:t 'insjuleitiqj, extreme [iks'tri.m], generate ['djendreit], generation, in general, require [n'kwaid], fuel [fjudl], liquid ['likwid], hydrogen ['haidndjen], surface ['sd:fis], vaporize ['veiperaiz], inject [in'djekt], combustion [kem'bAStjen], chamber ['tfeimbd], percentage [pe'senticfe].

stress apart from , way out

amount announcev ,

combinev (), (), )


combined with combustion complicatedp.p. conventional currentlyadv -

disadvantage measure noise overall , overcomev resistance

efficiency , , e.g. (for example) expectv ,

extreme ,

friction fuel heatv () injectv ,

mainlyadv structure ,

substitutev ,

vaporizev () velocity

Text 8

. , . , . .

A New Era for Aircraft

Aviation experts expect that today's aircraft will begin to be replaced with some new form of supersonic transport in a few years' time. A 21st century hypersonic aircraft may open a new age of aircraft design.

The designers of this country displayed the project of such a supersonic passenger liner among the prospective models at one of the latest Aerospace Salon held on the old Le Bourget airfield1 in Paris. An elongated fuselage with a sharp nose and without a horizontal stabilizer makes it look more like a rocket. The speed matches the looks2. This plane will fly at a speed five to six times above the speed of sound, e.g., it will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. The diameter of the fuselage will be 4 meters and the overall length 100 meters, with the cabin accomodating 300 passengers. The future superplanes of such a class will have no windows, but the passengers can enjoy3 watching the panorama of the Earth on the TV monitor at the front of the cabin. They will fly so fast that ordinary aircraft windows would make the structure too weak to withstand the stresses at such a speed. At high velocities the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is so great that the skin is heated to very high temperature. The only way out is to fly higher. Therefore, airliners' routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere.

In general, to build a reliable hypersonic plane one has to overcome a whole set of technological and scientific difficulties. Apart from creating highly economical combined engines and heat-insulating materials4, designers have to make such an amount of thermodynamic computations that can't be performed without using supercomputers. One of the ways to make planes as economical as possible is lightening the aircraft by substituting new composite materials for conventional metal alloys. Accounting for5 less than 5 per cent of the overall aircraft weight now, the percentage of composite material parts will exceed 25 per cent in new generation models. An extensive use of new materials combined with better aerodynamics and engines will allow increasing fuel efficiency by one-third6.

Because of the extreme temperatures generated by the atmosphere friction, a hypersonic craft will also require complicated cooling measures. One possibility is using cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen, as both coolants7 and propellants. The fuel flowing through the aircraft's skin would cool the surfaces as it vaporizes before being injected into combustion chamber.

In addition, specialists in many countries are currently working on new propeller engines considered much more economical and less noisy than jets. The only disadvantage is that propeller planes fly slower than jet planes. However, it has recently been announced that specialists succeeded in8 solving this problem. As a result a ventilator engine with a propeller often fibre-glass blades has been built, each being five meters long. It will be mounted in the experimental passenger plane.

Notes to the Text

1. Le Bourget airfield

2. the looks

3. can enjoy ()

4. heat-insulating materials

5. accounting for

6. by one-third

7. coolant

8. succeeded in

10. 8 .

1. What is this text about? 2. What aircraft was displayed in Paris? 3. What are the characteristics of the new liner? 4. What are the difficulties in building a hypersonic plane?

11., 8. .

1. Today's aircraft will be replaced with a new form of supersonic transport in a few years' time. 2. The new hypersonic aircraft that looks like a rocket will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. 3. The future superliner of this class will have large windows that will allow passengers to watch the panorama of the Earth. 4. Airliner's routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere because the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is too great. 5. Designers can easily make all the necessary thermody-namic calculations to build a reliable hypersonic plane. 6. It is possible to lighten the aircraft by substituting conventional metal alloys for new composite materials. 7. Cryogenic fuels are used as both coolants and propellants. 8. The great advantage of propeller planes is that they fly faster than jet planes.

12. 8 (. 3, 4 5- ).

13. , .

1. Flying from Los Angeles to Tokyo on board a new supersonic craft will take two hours. 2. On examining the car before starting on a long journey a driver can be sure that he will get to his destination without accidents. 3. By summing up the information about the speed and distance of various objects on the road, the computer de-

tects all possible dangers. 4. A superliner of a new kind will be capable of flying at five times above the speed of the sound. 5. The only way of overcoming the great air resistance at high velocities is flying higher. 6. At low speeds the engine can use turbines for compressing the air before mixing it with fuel in the combustion chamber. 7. In the future, in switching over to the new Earth satellite a driver can be sure of coming safely to his destination. 8. Cryogenic fuels will vaporize before being injected into combustion chamber. 9. In flowing over the aircraft's surface the fuel cools its skin. 10. On reaching its cruising speed the supersonic liner will fly at 100,000 feet above the Earth. 11. By using supercomputers it is possible to avoid making mistakes in extremely complicated ther-modynamic computations. 12. A new carburetor offers easier starting in cold weather. 13. By using the automatic guidance system a driver will be able to make long journeys without concentrating on the road conditions. 14. It is impossible to solve economic problems without using the achievements of the scientific and technological progress.

14. , .

1. Overcoming these difficulties is not so easy as it may seem. Overcoming these difficulties the designers can increase the fuel efficiency. 2. Setting a problem the scientist makes the first step to its solution. Setting a problem is the first step to its solution. 3. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours this superliner develops a speed five times above the speed of sound. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow on board a superliner requires about two hours. 4. Putting the discovery into practice the engineers will solve a complicated technological task. Putting the discovery into practice sometimes requires more effort than making it.

15. :

move , - movable

comfort, change, compare, control, program, measure.

16., .

reliable, elongate, percentage, stabilizer, stabilize, prospective, carrier, brilliant, relativity, intelligent, intelligence, assistance, fu-

selage, mainly, encircle, departure, statement, hypersonic, liner, horizontal, powerful.

17. .

design, designer, to design stabilizer, stability, stabilize latest, late, later efficient, efficiency, efficiently , perform, performing, performance reliable, reliability, reliably thinking, thinkable, unthinkable weightlessness, weightless, weight

18., .

advantage disadvantage; to remain to stay; reliable unreliable; fast slow; apart from besides, in addition; capable incapable; to begin to start; liquid solid; to cool to heat; possible impossible; weak strong; to build to break; aircraft plane; engine motor.

19. , .

1. At higher schools specialization generally begins in the third year. 2. Nowadays we generally have computers at every plant. 3. This doesn't improve the speed of transport vehicles in general and that of an automobile in particular. 4. The general principles of the design of new transport machines in general and diesel locomotives in particular can be found in the new magazine. 5. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become available in the near future. 6. Because of the extreme temperatures generated by atmospheric friction a craft will require protection. 7.The generation of electric power increases every year.

20., . .

1. Television has a great number of uses nowadays. 2. This car uses a new sensor mechanism. 3. A. Bell wanted to build a mechanism that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. 4. The new material can be applied in manufacturing components much smaller than those in use today. 5. The Library of Congress serves not only Members of the Congress, but re-

searchers and scientists who useit. 6. In Russian universities there is no charge for the use of reading rooms, laboratories and libraries. 7. Measuresto keep Moscow's air clean are important components of our ecological programme. 8. A thermometer is a device that measurestemperature. 9. Computers can do many things, they can controlmachines in factories, cars on roads, play chess and so on. 10. Computers controlnearly everything we do in the modern world. 11. Today dirigibles are equipped with electronic controls.

21. .

1. The car has ... (brought, brought about) mobility to millions of people, but at the same time polluted the atmosphere. 2. The scientific and technological achievements ... (brought, brought about) great changes in people's life and work. 3. A lot of people came to ... (look at, look for) a new invention, the television set, at the World Fair in New York. 4. It was necessary ... (to look at, to look for) a more reliable method of calculation. 5. The airplane Ruslan can ... (carry, carry out) up to 150 tons. 6. Research is being ... (carried, carried out) for developing new composite materials to lighten aircraft structure.

22. by, with, for, at, in.

The steam was invented ... James Watt, who worked ... many years before he could make the instruments ... which he perfected his machine. ... first he worked ... primitive tools so he could not make his engine well-regulated. The old machine was kept going ... a boy who stood by it and let... the air ... means of which the steam was condensed at every revolution. ... this machine, though it was imperfect, some work was done and it had been used ... a large mine-owner () to pump out the water. The first efficient steam-engine was made ... a Birmingham firm and it was soon used...nearly every manufacturer. The revolution in industry made ... this machine was extremely great.

23. , . held, flown, overcome, withstanding, lain, flow, burnt.

24. .

Even the birds aren't flying today is an old saying used to indicate that the weather for flying is extremely bad. And for man nothing has a greater effect on flying than the weather. And because of its changing so quickly and without warning an extensive

network of weather stations has been set up for helping the pilots get all the information about weather. Before flying pilots may get current weather information on changing conditions along their route or at their destination. The weather reporting system helps overcoming many difficulties in flying. In winter, e.g., icing can cause the reduction of lift efficiency of airplane by changing the flow of air. Pilot's being informed about the weather allows him to avoid weather problems. The weather being too bad, pilots just stay on the ground like any wise () bird.


Exercise 1.Answer the questions.

1. What kind of aircraft may begin a new age in aviation? (a hypersonic passenger liner) 2. What is the shape of the new liner? (an elongated fuselage with a sharp nose) 3. What distance can the new liner cover in less than two hours? (the distance between Tokyo and Moscow) 4. What are the main problems of building a reliable hypersonic liner? (developing an economical engine and new heat insulating materials combined with better aerodynamics) 5. What is one of the ways to make a hypersonic liner as economical as possible? (using new composite materials) 6. What will be used for cooling a hypersonic craft? (cryogenic fuels) 7. What combined engine was developed? (a ventilator propeller engine)

Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts.

1. It is expected that a new hypersonic aircraft

2. The project of such an aircraft was displayed at

3. There is no horizontal stabilizer

4. Therefore it looks more


5. The superliner will mainly fly in the stratosphere at

6. The diameter of the fuselage

7. The passenger superliners of such a class will have no windows


1. will be 4 meters, overall length 100 meters and its cabin will carry 300 passengers.

2. a speed five to six times above the speed of sound.

3. like a rocket.

4. since conventional aircraft
windows are too weak to with
stand high stresses at supersonic

5. the Aerospace Salon in Paris.

6. will replace todays' aircrafts soon.

7. in the design of a new super-liner.

Exersice3. Read and learn.


Ann: Well, good-bye, then! I hope you will have a pleasant journey.

Bob: I hope so too. The weather isn't too bad, anyway.

A.: No, it looks good. Just write me a few lines when you arrive,

will you?

B. A. B. A. B.

I will, indeed. And many thanks for your hospitality.

It was nice having you with us. When will you come again?

It is hard to say. It depends on a number of things.

Give my love to your mother.

I will. Thanks. Bye.

Bob: I think, the people of today are the most intelligent ()

people who have ever lived. Mary: Before answering this question I want you to listen to the following words: Flying machines are possible. A man may sit in

the middle of the machine and turn some device. This device

makes the artificial wings beat the air in the manner of a flying

bird. .: Why have you said this? There is nothing new or interesting. M.: But they were written six hundred years ago. .: Oh, really, who made this statement? M.: Roger Bacon, an English scientist. Of course, his sentences

have been made easier, but these were his words and thoughts.

Have you heard about him? .: Certainly, I have heard about him. But I have thought he was

a monk () and was in prison for many years. M.: You are quite right. Besides, he made a deep study of physics.

And this was the reason () for his being in prison. He

made men think about new things. .: Oh, Mary, Fve always said you are the most clever ()

girl I've ever met. Do you agree with me, Peter? Peter: Oh, sure. And I remember Bakon's statement about cars that

can go very rapidly by their own power and great ships on

rivers and oceans guided by one man.

Exercise 4.Speak about:

1. The characteristics of a new hypersonic passenger liner.

2. The main difficulties of its construction.

Use exercises 1, 2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: The text gives the information on... It is interesting to note that... Speaking

about... Further description of... is given. It is pointed out that... As far as I know...

In conclusion I'd like to say that...

aviation designers, to display, to cover the distance, overall, to heat to a very high temperature, new generation aircraft, to overcome difficulties in, a great amount of, without using, extensive use of new materials, exceed, to solve a problem.

Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement.

Air transport has many advantages and many disadvantages.

One point of view : It is fast, comfortable, safe, it is particularly good and efficient for long distances, it is independent of roads, it is good for the health because it is not tiring (), it is the most modern means of transport and it is the best way of travelling.

A contrary point of view : It is not safe, it is not reliable, it depends on the weather, it is not always good for the health, it always takes a long time to get from and to the airport, it is expensive, it is always connected with nervous strain (, )

Exercise 6.Read and smile.

A teacher was explaining fractions to the class of girls and boys. After having written several examples on the blackboard, he asked a boy whether he would prefer () one-fifth or one-eighth of a lemon.

Fd prefer one-eighth, sir.

Then the teacher began explaining again that though the fraction one-eighth looked larger than the fraction one-fifth, it was really the smaller of the two.

I know that, sir. I don't like lemons.

Einstein for a Day

Albert Einstein, one of the world's most brilliant and respected scientists, is best known for formulating the theory of relativity which played a critical part in the development of atomic energy. What may not be widely known is that Einstein had a fine sense of humor.

There is an amusing story about Einstein's visiting universities in a car driven by a chauffeur, giving lectures on relativity. One day the chauffeur said: Mr. Einstein, I've heard you give this lecture about 30 times. I know it by heart, and I am sure I could give it myself. Well, I'll give you a chance, said Einstein. They won't recognise me at the school. When we get there, I'll put on your cap and you introduce yourself as me and give the lecture.

The chauffeur gave Einstein's lecture without making a single mistake. On finishing, he started to leave, but one of the professors stopped him to ask a complex question. The chauffeur thought fast.

That problem is so trivial, he said, I'm surprised that you have to ask me. In fact, to show you how simple it is, I'm going to ask my chauffeur to come up here and answer your question.

Text 8B

. :





, ?

The Return of the Dirigibles

When it comes to technology, people are not inclined to return to the past. Yet, some exceptions do exist. Such is the attitude at present towards dirigibles. Having abandoned the skies more than 40 years ago, they have suddenly begun to reappear. Designers have once again sat down to design this kind of transportation. Their use can still be limited, but there is no doubt that dirigibles are coming back.

Why is dirigible attractive? What do you do with it? As its cruising speed is about 60 miles per hour, it is too slow to be used as a passenger carrier. But it is cheaper to operate than a helicopter, comfortable and capable of flying for several days. The craft's large size and staying power (dirigibles have remained in skies for as long as a week) make it ideally suited for exploration.

Their use in countries that have large territories and are rich in forests and are planning to explore and exploit new regions is most promising. They may be used to make a geological survey and to make maps, to look for off-shore oil and minerals, to take tourists to roadless, but beautiful places, to deliver heavy loads to remote regions and bring the products back. They have a potential use as a flying platform. In general, their possibilities are endless. They do not need expensive runways required by cargo planes.

Besides, the technological possibilities of manufacturing these crafts have changed. In 1920 and 1930s the dirigibles were manned by a big crew. Today being equipped with electronic control they can be operated by three pilots.

The modern dirigibles have one more important advantage over older models that of complete safety in flight, for, instead of hydrogen, they are filled with helium which does not burn. The craft is 200 feet long and is made of superstrong materials.

In the future it may be possible to build a dirigible with a metal hull that could carry hundreds of passengers and transport cargo around the world. In fact, it is probably as a cargo vehicle that the dirigible will have the best chance to find its use.

Text 8C

: 2014-11-13; : 23;

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