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Informal and Formal Education
Education includes different kinds of learning experiences. In its broadest sense we consider education to be the ways in which people learn skills, gain knowledge and understanding about the world and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways of learning into two types: informal and formal.
Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life. For example, children learn their language simply by hearing and by trying to speak themselves. In the same informal manner, they learn to dress themselves, to eat with good manners, to ride a bicycle or to make a telephone call. Education is also informal when people try to get information or to learn skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library or museum, watch a television show. They do not have to pass tests or exams.
We consider formal education to be the instruction given at different kinds of schools, colleges, universities. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people decide what to teach. The learners study those things with the teachers at the head. Teachers expect learners to come to school regularly and on time, to work at about the same speed as their classmates, and to pass tests and exams. Learners have to pass the exams to show how well they have progressed in their learning. At the end of their learning, learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or a degree as a mark of their success over the years.
The school system of all modern nations provides both general and vocational education. Most countries also offer special education programs for giftedor for physically or mentally handicapped children. Adult education programmers are provided for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. Most countries spend a large amount of time and money for formal education of their citizens.
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и выберите правильные ответы на вопросы
Yesterday we had a very interesting class. We spoke about professions and jobs. I wrote everything about everybody in my notebook because our teacher, Miss Elson, asked me to combine the information and make a report.
Two students are going to be doctors. Three girls want to be models. Four students want to be lawyers. People always need advice about laws. Kate Jinks is going to be an accountant. Her mother is an accountant and works at the bank. Kate thinks she has to do well in computing. Nobody is going to be a litter man, though everybody thinks it is very important to collect litter. No one wants a poorly paid job. Bob Harris is going to be a weatherman. He thinks it's the most important profession nowadays. Weather can bring a lot of trouble. Bob wants to forecast the weather.
Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту «Learning Foreign Languages» (1 уровень, задание 1)
1. Why do we need to learn foreign languages now?
2. How many people in the world speak English?
3. What are English-speaking countries?
4. In what areas is English mostly used?
5. What are the difficulties in learning foreign languages?
6. Is the knowledge of English necessary nowadays and why?
Задание 3. Задайте специальные вопросы и ответьте на них, используя модель
a) Model: People gain knowledge about the world. What do people gain?
1. Children learn to ride a bicycle. 2. People get information about themselves. 3. People visit libraries and museums. 4. They often watch a television show. 5. They usually pass tests.
b) Model: Education includes different kinds of learning experiences. What does education include?
1. A student in a technical school takes some general education courses and vocational training. 2. At the end of the learning, a learner earns a diploma. 3. The student passes tests and exams regularly. 4. The school system in different countries provides both general and vocational education. 5. This country spends a large amount of money for formal education.
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