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GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION. Attributive clauses. 1

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  2. B. Practice the following conversation with a partner using the substitutions in the box.
  3. C. Practice introducing yourself, friends and groupmates. Remember to smile (and use handshakes where appropriate).


Attributive clauses.   1. Match the sentences with the explanations. There are moor than one explanation to each sentence.


1. The purpose of programming is to create a program that demonstrates a certain desired behaviour. a. Individualizing and classifying attributive clauses give information which cannot be left out because it gives important information about the subject.
2. Delphi, whichis similar to Visual Basic, is also a programming environment for developing programs for the Windows operating system. b. Descriptive attributive clauses which give some extra information about the subject or the object of the principal clause can be left out.*
3. It was the same administrator whom I had addressed before. (formal) c. Whichand that refer to things. That is less formal than which.
4. A programming language which is mathematically oriented is typically used to solve problems of a mathematical nature. d. That is also used to refer to people in speech and informal writing. In individualizing and classifying attributive clauses it is often used instead of whom, but it is very rarely used instead of who.
5. That was the easiest task I’ve ever had! e. Whoand whom refer to people.
6. The people who/that work next door make a lot of noise. f. In informal language people prefer to use who, or that, instead of whom.
7. The man who writes programs for us doesn’t have special education. g. Whoseis used to give additional information about a person or thing. Whose cannot be replaced with that in individualizing and classifying attributive clauses.
8. The programmer, whose work was the best, got the job in the company. h. We cannot leave out the relative pronoun in descriptive and classifying attributive clauses.
9. The man that we spoke to gave us instructions. i. We can leave out the relative pronoun in individualizing attributive clauses when it is found in the function of the object.
10. The man we spoke to gave us instructions. j. We cannot leave out the relative pronoun in individualizing attributive clauses when it is used as the subject.
k. We can leave out the relative pronoun after a superlative.
l. That is never used instead of which in descriptive attributive clauses.
m. In descriptive attributive clauses that is never used instead of who and whom.
n. That is often used instead of which in individualizing and classifying attributive clauses.


* If a descriptive attributive clause defines the subject of the main clause, then it goes immediately after the subject, and commas must be used before and after such a clause. If a descriptive attributive clause defines the object of the main clause, then it is separated from the main clause by a comma.


2. Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence forming relative clauses. Match the sentences with the explanations from the previous exercise.


1. Programming is the process of preparing a set of coded instructions. The set of instructions enables the computer to solve specific problems or to perform specific functions.

2. The programs are lists of instructions. Instructions will be followed by the control unit of the CPU.

3. There are two kinds of errors or bugs. The programmers must deal with them.

4. There are syntax errors. They prevent the language processor from successfully translating the source program to object program code.

5. We use symbolic languages. They are easier to understand.

6. Most programming languages are purely textual. They use sequences of text including words, numbers, and punctuation, much like written natural languages.

7. Programming languages have progressed from machine-oriented languages that use strings of binary 1s and 0s to prob­lem-oriented languages. Prob­lem-oriented languages use common mathematical and/or English terms.

8. The boy’s idea was taken. He decided not to share his ideas with anyone.

9. My friend bought a new mobile phone. He didn’t know how to operate it.

10. The languages used to create Web documents are called markup languages. They use instructions (markups) to format and link text files.

11. I’ve never used this program. It’s the best!

12. The administrator’s files were lost. He had to do the work again.

13. I spoke to our programmer. He gave me good advice how to do the work.

14. Bill Gates has become a successful businessman. He didn’t have special education at the beginning of his carrier.

15. John Warner Backus was an American computer scientist. He submitted a proposal to his superiors at IBM to develop a more practical alternative to assembly language for programming their IBM 704 mainframe computer in late 1953.

16. C is a general-purpose computer programming language. It was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie to be used by UNIX operating system.

17. William Henry “Bill” Gates III is an American business magnate, philanthropist, author and chairman of Microsoft. He was born in October 28, 1955.

18. Microsoft is a software company. It was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.

19. Bill Gates stepped down the position as chief executive officer in January 2000. He announced that he would be making the transition from full-time job at Microsoft to part-time work at Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2006.

20. I found my friend’s files in the system. He gave me a reward.


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