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B) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.

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4. Read the following dialogue. The expression in bold type show the way people can be persuaded. Note them down. Be ready to act out the dialogue in class:


Molly. Yolanda, I have big news to tell you. I've made a very big decision.

Yolanda: Well, come on. What is it?


M.: I'm going to apply to medical school.

Y.: You're what? But I thought you wanted to teach.

M: I've decided to give that up. Teaching jobs are being cut back now at many universities.

Y.:Yes, and I've read that a number of liberal arts colleges have been closed.

M: I have a friend who finished his Ph. D. in history last year. He's been looking for a teaching position for a year, and he's been turned down by every school so far.

Y.: I suppose a Ph.D. in the humanities isn't worth very much these days.

M: No, it isn't. And even if you find a teaching job, the sala­ry is very low.

Y.: Yeah, college teachers should be paid more. But, Molly,it's very difficult to get into medical school today.

M.: Iknow. I've been told the same thing by everyone.

Y.: How are you going to pay for it? It costs a fortune to go to medical schools now.

M.: Maybe I can get a loan from the federal government.

Y.: That's an interesting possibility but it doesn'tsolve the financial problem entirely even ifyou get the student financial aid. You will graduate owing money. Medical students, espe­cially, acquired heavy debts. Recently I read of one who owed $ 60,000. Won't you be facing sufficient other problems with­out starting life in debt? Aren't many college graduates having trouble even finding jobs? When they find them, don'tthey be­gin at relatively modest salaries ?

M.: I don't know, but...

Y.:It's foolishfor a student to acquire debt, a negative dow­ry, unlessit's absolutely imperative. Students sometimes be­come so excited about college that they forget there's life after­wards.

M: Maybe you're right. Life is a series of compromises, I'll have to consider career possibilities in the light of college costs...


In trying to persuade others, people use different tactics which can be classified into 3 basic strategies — hard, soft, and rational. Hard tactics aUenate the people being influenced and create a climate of hostility and resistance. Soft tactics — acting nice, being humble —may lessen self-respect and self-esteem. People who rely chiefly on logic reasons and compromise to get then-way are the most successful.



1) As you read the extracts below pay attention to the difference between the 3 different strategies of persuasion — hard, soft and rational:


a) (parent to child) Get upstairs and clean your room! Now. (hard); b) (professor to student) I'm awfully sorry to ask you to stay late but I know I can't solve this problem without your help, (rational); c) (professor to student) I strongly suggest that you work this problem out, if not, I will have to write a negative report about you. (hard); d) (teacher to freshman) That was the best essay I ever read. Why don't you send it to the national competition ? You could do very well there, (soft).


2) Turn the given situation below into four possible dialogues by supplying the appropriate request of the first speaker:

John, a high school undergraduate, asks his Latin teacher to write a recommendation for him to apply to the University of Pennsylvania for admission.


a) J.:

T.: Sure, John.

b) J.:

T.: Of course, John.

c) J.:

T.: I suppose that's all right, John.

d) J.:

T.: Yeah, that's OK, John.


3)In the text below: The teacher is giving Jeff, talented but a very lazy student, his advice, a) Decide if the teacher's strategies are hard, soft or ratio­nal:


I guess there is nothing more I can say or do to persuade you to try harder, Jeff. At this point it is crucial that you decide what you really want to do in order to know the language well. It's important to start early. You are very bright but it is still es­sential that you practise on a daily basis. It is also very impor­tant for you to come to class regularly. No one can do these things for you and no one should. It's necessary that you de­cide yourself whether to make these changes in your attitude or to give up your future as a teacher of English.


b) Act out a dialogue based on the above given situation. Vary the teacher's strategies by changing the Subjunctive Clauses to Infinitive Clauses and the Infinitive Clauses to Subjunctive Clauses.


6. Pair work. 1) From the dialogue in Ex. 4 Use the problems which young people face choosing a career in the USA. Team up with another student and discuss the problem of a career choice. Try to be convincing in defending your views. 2)Use the art of persuasion in making your son apply to the university of your choice which does not appeal to him. Vary the strategies from soft to hard.


In some US universities and high schools there are summer schools where high school students may repeat the courses to improve then grades or they may take up some additional courses to get better opportunities while applying for admission to a university. College students attend summer schools for the above mentioned reasons and also to speed up getting a degree by earning additional credits. (The classes are paid for on per hour basis). There have been years of debate to introduce a year-round compulsory schooling. Below is the text about an experiment which was made in Los Angeles.


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