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D) Spend a few minutes individually thinking of further arguments you will use to back up the opinion you have been assigned.

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  1. A. Make up short dialogues expressing your opinion, agreeing or disagreeing. Use the prompts given below.
  2. B) Spend a few minutes individually thinking of further arguments you will use to back up your own opinion on the usefulness and types of punishment.
  3. C) Now discuss the opinions with your partner.
  4. D) Participate in the discussion. (You have only five minutes to talk.) Be prepared to answer any question arising in the course of the discussion.
  5. Expressing opinions
  6. Group these names into these two columns. Provide some arguments to justify your decision.
  7. How we really spend our time
  8. I) If no transmissions received for 3 minutes continue visually or go around.
  9. Minutes


e) Enact the debates on a year-round schooling at the sitting of the school board of education. Do your best to support those who share a similar point of view and try to persuade those who disagree (use phrases of persuasion and agreement/disagreement given in the Appendix).


8. Below are the extracts bringing out some problems American higher education is faced with at present. Read the selections carefully and comment on the way constitutional statement guaranteeing the theory equality of educational opportunities to the people of the USA is carried out the practice:


1. "After ten years of affirmative action and federal legislation prohibiting sex discrimination, women are still second class citizens on the campus, but women are a new advocacy group — this is how we have to think of ourselves in the 1990s."



2. "Having come with too little too late to the slums, our country has failed to provide lower educational resources through which many of our young black Americans may realize their potential. We have failed to provide adult-learning institutions effectively addressed to the backwash of racism and slavery."

3. "... Deep split in American life transcends black and while, rich and poor, educated and ignorant, slum and suburb.

Black America is the testing ground for our moral crisis. There is no more prevailing American tradition than having our black do the dirty, messy, difficult business of society. In those institutions where people can be hurt — in bad schools, in inferior and demeaning occupations, in wars — the black people have manned the front lines."


9. Group discussion. Read the following selections. The issue discussed is the role of the student in the university. Consider each ot the categories presented below and discuss the position of the Russian students at the institute in view of the recent changes in the Russian system of higher education:


1. "Is the student's role similar to that of an apprentice — studying the master and gradually becoming a master? Or is the proper relationship one of a ward of the university, which is responsible for the student's welfare and moral and intellectual training? Or is the student a client of the university — where the student seeks out professors to help in areas of interest and need?


2. "It is probably safe to say that in England, Canada and the United States, until recent years, there has always been a sharp distinction between the role and status of the teacher and the role and status of the student — a simple recognition of the fact that the former by virtue of his knowledge, age and experience should exercise some domination and direction over the latter."


3. "A person's role in any given situation is defined not only by the individual but by other people and institutions in the en­vironment. Up to 1950 there seemed few differences in the views of students, professors, or the university in respect of the stu­dent's role in the university.

Quite clearly the student was not a member of the universi­ty if membership is defined as having a shared responsibility for the program, regulations, welfare of the institution. In these respects the student was without status or recognition.


The attitude of the university was paternalistic and authori­tarian; this was accepted by all concerned."

4. "It was obvious in the seventies that student protest had altered the ethos of the campus in many significant ways. There was, for example, the relaxation of admission requirements, the adoption of pass-fail grading in many courses, the increasing provisions for independent study, the emphasis on creative art; the growth of work-study programs, the free choice of a wide variety of subjects.

There was now no argument: students did share the power. The vital question was to what extent and in what areas?

But in respect of the student's role in the university, a signifi­cant point in the history of the university was turned. Students could no longer be considered children, they were adults with responsibility for their own behaviour and conduct; they were franchised members of the university with voting rights on some issues and potentially on all issues within the university com­munity."


10. Enact a panel discussion:


A panel discussion programme appears on TV. Four members of the public are invited to give their opinions. The questions for discussion are sent in by the viewers. The chairperson reads out the questions and directs the panel.


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