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II. Read the text. Biochemistry –science about transformations of substances




Biochemistry –science about transformations of substances

Biochemistry sometimes called biological chemistry is the study of chemical processes within, and relating to, living organisms. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research.

Today the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Depending on the exact definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate and study molecular biology.

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids which are used to synthesize proteins. The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism.

 

 

III. Answer the questions:

1. What is biochemistry?

2. In which areas of science is biochemistry used?

3. What is molecular biology?

4. What biochemistry deals with?

5. How can mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions be called?

6. How many kinds of chemical elements are essential to various kinds of biological life?

7. What elements are not needed and are not used in life?



8. What element is required by ocean algae and plants?

9. What element is required by all animals?

10. What elements make up almost 99 percent of the mass of a human body?


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