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:
  1. . .
  2. 12.
  3. XIV XVI.,
  4. ()
  5. 2- .
  6. / XIII . - XIII . . . . .
  7. 3-1 - .
  8. .
  9. .
  10. ().

 

XX , . . . : ., ., ..

, , aa oa pae (1885-1920 .), c ee peepa coy eopa. pecae o o oocoa eoxooc oopa opex paoo oe opeeeo pao (paccao apo), oocoa eoxooc oye paoo, x oooy epeoooy a yp pep, a copox opaax, paoaa pya ee oa. paax ao o papaoa 12 ocox po ypae, oeo ocaee e - o cxo y ypae; pa cc, peoaa pae ceax oo oc x p; oeea ocya poeccoao coepecoae poecco ypae a ocoe x peoea; ca, oeceea eo peaeae eeoc e, opoe a ee coee, coepee oopee; cpaeoe ooee epcoay .

1920-1950 . acceca, cpaa oa, p ao (oa eeea). eac oo apae cceoa eoc pao ce opaa. pecae ao o ce c paoy pep cey oco a eeoc: execo; oepeco; acoo; ao; yxaepco; acppoa. oo ox pao poeex cceoa ao ec coae po ypae ce opaae.

aaa 1950-x . o acoeo pee oa eoeecx ooe, oee eoc pao opaa a ce yeo cooa eoeecx pecypco. pecae o o poe oeco cceoa cepeo o opoca oa e, xapaepa ac, epca, aeca pyoo . . peyae cea o, o ccea eoeecx ooe e a peyaoc pya e ee, e paoaa pya.



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