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Exercise1. Join each pair of sentences in one sentence.

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  1. B Watch section 1. While watching number these sentences in the correct order from 1 to 6.
  2. B. Complete the following sentences with the Past Simple Tense of the verbs of the previous exercise.
  3. B. Write sentences in the way shown.
  4. C Use a dictionary to check any underlined phrases that are new. Then discuss with your partner whether you think the sentences are true or false.
  5. C./ translate the following sentences; mind the ways of rendering the geographical names.
  6. Choose between the infinitive and the gerund as the object to an adjective in the following sentences
  7. Complete the sentences 1-10 below with the gerund as subject. You should use your own variants. The first is given for you.
  8. Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into Future Simple Passive.
  9. Complete the sentences filling in the appropriate word from the box. Each word should be used once. Pay attention to the form of the word you insert.
  10. Complete the sentences, as in the example.

1. I saw a man. He was crossing the street.

2. I know a woman. She is a singer.

3. He lent me $ 1,000. He was so generous,

4. Leonardo Di Caprio is a famous actor. He starred in "Titanic".

5. I know the boy. He works on the farm.

6. This is a private house. It is guarded day and night.

7. I saw Rose. Her car had been damaged.

8. She is a widow. Her husband died two years ago.

9. I work at the post office. It is near my house.

Exercise2. Read the following facts about the accident and put in the missing relative pronouns.

The lorries were following the coast road ... goes from Shaldon to Mardencombe. The second lorry was loaded with cages full of pigeons. However, the driver hadn't locked all the cages properly. There were a number of cars behind the lorries. When they reached a part of the road ... was extremely narrow, a driver... wanted to over­take the lorries suddenly pulled out While he was over­taking, he noticed the cars ... were coming the other way. He stepped on the brake, he skidded and overturned The lorry ... was loaded with pigeons tried to avoid him and crashed into a tree while the first lorry drove on. The cages ... the driver hadn't locked properly broke open and about 50 pigeons flew away. A woman ... had seen the accident called an ambulance because the driver ... lorry had hit the tree was badly injured.

Unit 8

Theme: Articles

Rules:

A Only with indefinite singular countable nouns one case with proper names THE Both singular and plural definite nouns some proper names Abstract and uncountable + indefinite plural nouns most proper names.
1 Smth. indefinite without details. I bought a book yesterday. 2 Noun is a part of compound predicate. This is a pen. He is a doctor. 3 If there’s an adjective before the noun. I live in a small flat. 4 In the meaning of “любой”, “всякий”. A child can do it. 5 In the meaning of “один”. A week or two passed. 6 Exclamations. What a nice day! (But What nasty weather! – “weather” is an uncountable noun) 7 After such, quite, rather. He’s such a clever man! 8 Price, distance and frequency. 80 p a kilo; 100 km an hour; once a day. 9 With “indefinite” illnesses. Get a cold; get a headache; get a score throat. 10 With uncountable nouns in the meaning of “portion”. Would you like an ice cream? 11 With names = “какой-то”. A Mrs Smith is waiting for you. 1 Smth definite. Look! The water is boiling! 2 Mostly before “of-phrases”. The title of this book is “War and Peace.” 3 Unique things. The Universe, the Earth 4 With substantivized adjectives: the old-старики 5 with superlative degree: He’s the best dancer. 6. With same, wrong, right, very (самый),last, only, whole. You are the very person I need. 7. Musical instruments: I like playing the guitar. 8.Rivers, lakes, canals, channels, seas, oceans, deserts. the Baikal (lake Baikal) 9. Groups of islands, chains of mountains. the Alps. 10. Museums, theatres, cinemas, newspapers. the Times, the Bolshoy 11. Family names the Smiths 12. The=тот самый Is he a Sheldon who is a writer? 1. With uncountable and plural countable nouns in general statements. I like ice cream. 2. With abstract and material nouns. Blood is thicker than water. 3. Names of meals in general. I have breakfast at 9 in the morning. But: Do you remember the dinner(определенный)we had when we first met? 4.With school, university, jail, prison, college, hospital, church,court, home, work, bed – when they are used in general and refer to certain actions. They go church on Sundays. They went to the church to see the icons. 5.Illnesses. He got pneumonia and went to hospital. 6.Proper names.

Exercise1. Insert a or an if necessary.



1 My neighbour is . . . photographer; let's ask him for . . . advice about colour films.



2 We had . . . fish and . . . chips for . . . lunch. ~
That doesn't sound . . . very interesting lunch.

3 I had . . . very bad night; I didn't sleep . . . wink.

4 He is . . . vegetarian; you won't get . . . meat at his house. He'll give you . . . nut cutlet. ~Last time I had . . . nut cutlet I had . . . indigestion.

5 . . . travel agent would give you . . . information about . . . hotels.

6 We'd better go by . . . taxi—if we can get . . . taxi at such . . . hour as 2 a.m.

7 . . . person who suffers from . . . claustrophobia has . . . dread of being confined in . . . small space, and would always prefer . . . stairs to . . . lift.

8 Do you take . . . sugar in . . . coffee? ~
I used to, but now I'm on . . . diet. I'm trying to lose . . . weight.

9 . . . man suffering from . . . shock should not be given anything to drink.

10 You'll get . . . shock if you touch . . . live wire with that screwdriver.
Why don't you get . . . screwdriver with . . . insulated handle?

Exercise2. Insert the if necessary.

1 . . . youngest boy has just started going to . . . school; . . . eldest boy is at . . . college.

2 She lives on . . . top floor of an old house. When . . . wind blows, all . . . windows rattle.

3 . . . darkness doesn't worry . . . cats; . . . cats can see in . . . dark.

4 My little boys say that they want to be . . . spacemen, but most of them will probably end up in . . . less dramatic jobs.

5 Do you know . . . time? ~

Yes, . . . clock in . . . hall has just struck nine. ~
Then it isn't . . . time to go yet.

6 He was sent to . . . prison for . . . six months for . . . shop-lifting.

When . . . six months are over he'll be released; . . . difficulty then will be to find . . . work. ~
Do you go to . . . prison to visit him?

7 I went to . . . school to talk to . . . headmistress. I persuaded her to let Ann give up . . . gymnastics and take . . . ballet lessons instead.

8 . . . ballet isn't much use for . . . girls; it is much better to be able to play . . . piano.

9 I am on... night duty. When you go to . . . bed, I go to . . . work.

10 Peter's at . . . office but you could get him on . . . phone. There's a telephone box just round . . . corner

Exercise3. Insert a, an or the if necessary.

1 There was . . . knock on . . . door. I opened it and found . . . small dark man in . . . blue overcoat and . . . woollen cap.

2 He said he was . . . employee of . . . gas company and had come to read . . . meter.

3 But I had . . . suspicion that he wasn't speaking . . . truth because . . . meter readers usually wear . . . peaked caps.

4 However, I took him to . . . meter, which is in . . . dark corner under . . . stairs

(. . . meters are usually in . . . dark corners under . . . stairs).

5 I asked if he had . . . torch; he said he disliked torches and always read . . . meters by . . . light of . . . match.

6 I remarked that if there was . . . leak in . . . gaspipe there might be . . . explosion while he was reading . . . meter.

7 He said, 'As . . . matter of . . . fact, there was . . . explosion in . . . last house I visited; and Mr Smith, . . . owner of . . . house, was burnt in . . . face.'

8 'Mr Smith was holding . . . lighted match at . . . time of . . . explosion.'

9 To prevent . . . possible repetition of this accident, I lent him . . . torch.

10 He switched on . . . torch, read . . . meter and wrote . . . reading down on . . . back of . . . envelope.

11 I said in . . . surprise that . . . meter readers usually put . . . readings down in . . . book.

12 He said that he had had . . . book but that it had been burnt in . . . fire in . . . Mr Smith's house.

13 By this time I had come to . . . conclusion that he wasn't . . . genuine meter reader; and . . . moment he left . . . house I rang . . . police.

14 Are John and Mary . . . cousins? ~
No, they aren't . . . cousins; they are . . . brother and . . . sister.

15 . . . fog was so thick that we couldn't see . . . side of . . . road. We followed . . . car in front of us and hoped that we were going . . . right way.

16 I can't remember . . . exact date of . . . storm, but I know it was . . . Sunday because everybody was at . . . church. On . . . Monday . . . post didn't come because . . . roads were blocked by . . . fallen trees.

17 Peter thinks that this is quite . . . cheap restaurant.

18 There's been . . . murder here. ~
Where's . . . body?~
There isn't . . . body. ~
Then how do you know there's been . . . murder?

19 Number . . . hundred and two, - . . house next door to us, is for sale.
It's quite . - . nice house with . . . big rooms. . . . back windows look out on . . . park.

20 I don't know what . . . price . . . owners are asking. But Dry and Rot are . . . agents. You could give them . . . ring and make them . . . offer.

Unit 9

Theme: The sequence of tenses

Rules:

The sequence of tenses is used when someone’s words are reported. The rules of the Sequence of Tenses are observed in subordinate object, subject, predicative, appositive clause.

The rules of the sequence of tenses are compulsory:

· If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause, the Past Simple or the Past Progressive is used in the object clause .

F.e: He said that he lived in Rome.

· If the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the principal clause, the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Progressive is used in the subordinate clause .

F.e: I knew you had left the city..

· If the action of the subordinate clause refers to the future, the Future-in-the Past is used.

F.e: We hoped she would soon be better

The rules of the sequence of tenses are optional when reference is made to the actual present time or the actual future time. This use is found in dialogues,time,the actual future time.

F.e: He said he doesn’t ever want to see you.

 

If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where…..)

The question word is repeated in the direct question.

F.e: “Is anyone there?” he asked. He said if anyone was there.


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