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Compare the grammar forms of Future and Future-in-the-Past

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  7. Ex. 1: Compare the source text with its translations; what does the translation of the words in italics depend on? Give your translation.
  8. Ex. 2: Translate into Russian giving full or partially corresponding grammatical forms
  9. Ex. 4: Compare the source text with its translation. Was the translator successful in attaining a satirical effect?

(Сравните соответствующие формы Future и Future–in-the-Past):


Future Future–in-the-Past  
She says she will come late. She said she would come late.
She thinks you will be staying in town She thought you would be staying in town.
She says the cars will have gone along distance by nine. She said the cars would have gone along distance by nine.
She says the cars will have been going for two hours by nine. She said the cars would have been going for two hours by nine.


Give the translation of the sentences in ex.1

(Переведите предложения из таблицы).


Rewrite the sentences in Present tense into the Past

(Перепишите предложения из настоящего времени в прошедшее):


· I am afraid I shall be late.

· He hopes you will often visit him.

· They expect he will be at home in a few days.

· She promises that she will finish the work in a week.

· Are you afraid we shan’t be in time?


Use the correct form of the verbs

(Употребите нужную форму глагола, раскрывая скобки):

  • I know they (not to be) late.
  • I knew they (not to be) late.
  • “When you (to be) ready?” - he asked.
  • He asked when I (to be) ready.
  • I didn’t know what he (to speak) about.


Translate from Russian into English

(Переведите предложения на английский язык):

  • Я знаю, что он скоро придет.
  • Мы знали, что к девяти часам мама уже приготовит ужин.
  • Я боялся, что приду слишком поздно.
  • Они написали, что скоро приедут.
  • Он говорит, что знает этого человека.




There are many different kinds of sentence using if. You have to decide whether you’re talking about the past, the present or future. You also have to decide whether you’re talking about a real possibility or an unreal possibility (unlikely, impossible or hypothetical)


Real possibility, present and future

Zero conditional: if + present tense….present tense


This is used to talk about general truths and scientific facts.


If you read a lot, you learn lots of vocabulary.

If you are cooking, you need to use vegetables.


First conditional: if + present tense…will +bare infinitive


This is used to talk about real possibilities in the present, in the future, or generally.

If you read a lot, you will learn lots of vocabulary.

You will need a good dictionary if you are learning foreign language.

If you have studied, you’ll do well in today’s test.


Instead of will, we can also use other modals or the imperative.


If you are going to the party, you can take this cake I made.

If it’s too late, you should call me tomorrow.

I might/may study Spanish if I pass my English exam.

If you have finished, do the next task.


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