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COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES




Higher education is given in colleges and universities. There are about 3000 institutions of higher education in the United States. Some of them are public, others are private. A public institution is owned and operated by a government. The cost of education in private institutions is paid by the students. Approximately 700 of all private institutions are controlled by religious groups.

More than 30% of young American adults attend college. Each college or university in the USA has its own requirements for admission. Most of them require students to take a standard entrance exam. In addition some colleges require a personal interview.

The most common college degree is a bachelor of arts, or a B.A. degree. This degree usually requires four years of study. During the first two years, a student often takes liberal arts courses to receive a general education. Liberal arts courses include the study of literature, languages and history. Then, in the last two years of college, a student focuses on major subjects, his or her specialization. Then the students may go on studying, and with a year or two of further study get a master’s degree. After another year or two of research, they may get a still higher degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). Higher education trains people to become teachers, engineers, dentists or do other professional work.

A university is larger than a college. The most well-known universities in the USA are Columbia and Michigan, Cornell, Nee York and Buffalo.

Tuition and living costs at a state university might be about 1000 dollars a year. Private universities are even more expensive.

Students are classified as freshmen (first-year students), sophomores (second-year students), and juniors (third-year students). All the students who have graduated from the senior class are called advanced students or graduate students. Some graduate students get grants or stipends, which cover the cost of their education.

 

Exercise I

Find the equivalents of the following Russian words and word combinations in the text:

Высшее образование, учебное заведение, приблизительно, взрослые, требования к поступлению, типовые вступительные экзамены, собеседование, бакалавр, гуманитарные курсы, сосредоточиться на главных предметах, обучение, первокурсник, второкурсник, студент предпоследнего курса, выпускник, стипендия.



 

Exercise II

Arrange these words in suitable pairs

bachelor courses

higher for admission

attend students

private education

requirements interview

entrance exam

liberal arts studying

go on stipends

graduate college

get of arts

personal universities

 

Exercise III

Translate the words and word combinations in brackets using their equivalents from the text:

  1. There are about 3000 (высших учебных заведений) in the USA.
  2. The cost of education (в частных учебных заведениях) is paid by the students.
  3. Most colleges and universities require students to take a (типовой вступительный экзамен).
  4. The most common college degree is (бакалавр искусств).During the first two years students take (гуманитарные предметы) to receive a general education.
  5. In the last two years of college students (концентрируют свое внимание на основных предметах).
  6. Students graduate from the college with the degree of (Доктор Философии).
  7. University students are classified as (первокурсники, второкурсники, студенты предпоследнего курса и выпускники).
  8. Some graduate students get (дотации или стипендии).

 




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