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THE UNITED KINGDOM




The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the British Kingdom. It is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometers. Many years ago the British Isles formed a part of the continent. Now Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the North Sea. The narrowest part of the English Channel is called the Strait of Dover.

The UK is made up of four countries. They are England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. The capital of the UK is London. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland.

The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the west. The two islands are separated by the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous. It's called the Highlands. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m). The south of Scotland has beautiful valleys and plains. It is called the Lowlands.

Scotland is a land of famous lakes. They are called "lochs" there. The beautiful Loch Lomond is the largest one. Loch Ness attracts millions of tourists by its legendary monster.

The north and west of England are mountainous. Mountains aren't very high. The east, centre and south-east of England is a vast plain.

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they aren't very long. The largest of them are the Severn (350 km), the Clyde, the Mersey, the Thames (346 km), the Trent (274 km) and the Ouse. The Thames is the deepest river. London stands on the Thames.

The climate of Great Britain is temperate and mild. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles.

The population of the UK is over 57 million people.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is the largest producer and exporter of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.



The UK is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. The Queen is the Head of State, but she has no power. The Queen is a symbol of the country's history and its traditions. The real power in the country belongs to the British Parliament and to the British Government.

The British Parliament has two "houses". They are the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords can offer and change laws. It can delay laws. The House of Commons makes laws about the policy of the country, taxes and many other things.

The members of the House of Lords aren't elected. These members are permanent. The members of the House of Commons are elected. The British people elect 650 members of the House of Commons every five years.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain. They are the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties.

The flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of three crosses: the cross of St. George (the patron saint of England), the cross of St. Andrew (the patron saint of Scotland) and the cross of St. Patrick (the patron saint of Ireland).

Names

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland-Coe Kopo Be Ceep



the British Isles- ocpoa the English Channel-

the Strait of Dover- po the North Sea-Ceepoe ope

the Atlantic Ocean- the Irish Sea-

the House of Lords- the House of Commons-

the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties- ,

Exercise II

Read the first part of the sentence in A and find the second part in B:

A

1. The UK is made up of ...

2. The climate of Great Britain is...

3. The flag of the UK is known as ...

4. The British Parliament has ...

5. The UK is washed by ...

6. The UK is the largest producer and exporter of

7. The UK is ...

8. The British Isles consist of ...

B

... machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment.

... two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands.

... the Union Jack.

... England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

... a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch.

... two "houses", the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

... temperate and mild.

... the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the east.

 

Exercise I

Answer the questions:

1. What is the official name of the British Kingdom?

2. Where is the UK situated?

3. What do the British Isles consist of?

4. What is the total area of the British Isles?

5. What did the British Isles form many years ago?



6. How is Great Britain separated from the continent?

7. What is the narrowest part of the English Channel called?

8. What parts does Great Britain consist of?

9. What is the UK washed by?

10. What are the two islands, Great Britain and Ireland, separated by?

11. What is the north of Scotland called? Why?

12. What is the highest mountain in Scotland?

13. What is the south of Scotland called? Why?

14. What is the largest lake in Scotland?

15. What can you say about the surface of England?

16. What rivers are there in Great Britain? What are the largest ones?

17. What is the deepest river in Great Britain?

18. What is the climate of Great Britain like?

19. What waters influence the climate of the British Isles?

20. What is the population of the UK?

21. The UK is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, isn't it?

22. Does the Queen rule the country?

23. Who does the real power in the country belong to?

24.How many "houses" does the British Parliament have? What are they?

25.What are the main political parties in Great Britain?

 

Exercise III

Read the beginning of the sentence and find its end in the text:

 

1. The Queen is the Head of State ... .

2. The largest of them are ... .

3. The British people elect ... .

5. It is made up of three crosses ... .

6. The real power in the country belongs ... .

7. London stands ... .

8. Now Great Britain is separated ... .

 

 

Exercise IV

Put in the missing words according to the text:

1. The south of Scotland has beautiful... and ....

2. The narrowest part of the English Channel is called ... .

3. The British people elect 650 members of the ... every five years.

4. The House of Commons makes laws about the ... of the country, ... and many other things.

5. The climate of Great Britain is ... and ... .

6. Loch Ness attracts millions of tourists by its legendary ....

7. The UK is a ... developed industrial country.

8. The Union Jack is made up of three ...

 

Exercise V

Read the dialogue and translate it. Act it out:

Ann:Nice day, isn't it? But too mild for this time of the year.

Susan:Yes, it is. I like such weather. It's snowing, but it isn't very cold.

Ann:But I like colder weather better. After all, winter must be winter.

Susan:Well, and now you know that the climate of England is very different from yours.

It's true that our winter is warmer than yours, but our summer is cooler too.

Ann:In summer you have a lot of rainy days and in winter there isn't much snow.

Susan:Exactly. This winter we're going to have as little snow as last winter, I'm afraid.

Ann:Yes, I think you are right. But now there is much snow. Let's go for a weekend to Brighton. The air is much cleaner there than in London.

Susan:OK. Clean air is so important for people's health!

Ann:It certainly is.

 

Exercise VI

Use the information below to make a report on the following:

LAND

Area - 241,752 sq km

Highest Point Ben Nevis 1,343 m above sea level

Lowest Point - Holme Fen 3m below sea level


: 2015-07-26; : 15;







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