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The following sentences have been removed from the article. Decide in which numbered gap each one should go. (There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.)




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  1. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  2. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  3. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  4. Be bold, be bold, but not too bold (будь смелой, но не слишком смелой), Lest that your heart’s blood should run cold (чтобы твоего сердца кровь не бежала холодной).
  5. Be bold, be bold, but not too bold, Lest that your heart’s blood should run cold.
  6. Change these sentences by changing certain adjectives into verbs.
  7. Ex 14 Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech following the examples. Notice the changes in the pronouns.
  8. Ex. 2. Interpret the following texts
  9. Ex. 2. Interpret the following texts
  10. Ex. 2. Prepare the following messages for transmission by radiotelephony.

A Somewhere in the process of growing up we lose an astonishing 385 laughs a day.

B It also makes our facial and stomach muscle work.

C He is convinced that humour should be a part of every medical consultation.

D Some have ever been referred by their family doctors.

E They divided forty university students into four groups.

F This will also help improve your personal relationships.

G But we could be losing our ability to laugh.

H This is laughter therapy in action.

Why laughter is the best medicine?

Our unserious side is being taken seriously by doctors. Laughing helps you fight illness – and gets you fit. But how it works is still being puzzled out.

A group of adults are lying in a circle on the floor listening to a recording of «The Laughing Policeman». At first everyone feels ridiculous and there’s only the odd nervous giggle, but suddenly the laughter becomes real. It quickly spreads around the room until everyone is infected by it. (1 ___)

Doctors are starting to believe that laughter not only improves your state of mind, but actually affects your entire physical well-being. The people lying in a circle are attending a workshop to learn the forgotten art of laughter. (2 ___)

Britain’s first laughter therapist, Robert Holden says: «Instinctively we know that laughing helps us feel healthy and alive. Each time we laugh we feel better and more content.»

(3 ___) A French newspaper found that in 1930 the French laughed on average for nineteen minutes per day. By 1980 this had fallen to six minutes. Eighty per cent of the people questioned said that they would like to laugh more. Other research suggests that children laugh on average about 400 times a day, but by the time they reach adulthood this has been reduced to about fifteen times. (4 ___)

William Fry – a psychiatrist from California – studied the effects of laughter on the body. He got patients to watch Laurel and Hardy films, and monitored their blood pressure, heart rate and muscle tone. He found that laughter has a similar effect to physical exercise. It speeds up the heart rate, increases blood pressure and quickens breathing. (5 ____) Fry thinks laughter is a type of jogging on the sport.



Laughter can even provide a kind of pain relief. Fry has proved that laughter produces endorphins – chemicals in the body that relieve pain.

Researchers from Texas tested this. (6 ___) The first group listened to a funny cassette for twenty minutes, the second listened to a cassette intended to relax them, the third heard an informative tape, while the fourth group listened to no tape at all.

Researchers found that if they produced pain in the students, those who had listened to the humorous tape could tolerate the discomfort for much longer.

Patch Adams is both a doctor and a performing clown in Virginia, America. (7 ____) «There’s evidence to suggest that laughter stimulates the immune system», says Adams, «yet hospitals and clinics are well-known for their depressing atmospheres». Adams practices what he preaches. He wears his waist-length hair in a ponytail and also has a handlebar moustache. He usually puts on a red nose when seeing patients.


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