АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
Prep. + Noun (прит.п.) + Gerund
(Prep.) + N (общ.п.) + Gerund
Example: He speaks of the workers’ (their) doing it.
...что рабочие сделают это.
7. Form gerunds using the suffix -ing:
read; explain; govern; create; develop; increase; provide; delivery; establish; distribute; visit; enter.
8. Make the following sentences simple using the Gerund:
1. Do you mind if I take your warranty card for a moment? 2. We must consider the matter thoroughly before we come to any conclusion. 3. I remember that we have seen our department head only once. 4. When he received another letter from his firm he changed his mind. 5. Before he left the office he called on his sales manager.
9. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Cleaning up the river will require a major effort, and considerable expense. 2. Scientists’ working together and their sharing ideas with one another is of great advantage for science. 3. Economists have two ways of looking at economics and the economy. 4. Sellers compete by trying to produce the goods and services buyers want at the lowest possible price. 5. The next step in preparing a personal budget is to draw up a list of all your sources of income. 6. There are numerous reasons people think about owning a business of their own. 7. Instead of using that temporary opportunity to increase the market share for American autos by holding prices at current levels or lowering prices, the auto companies raised their prices. 8. Monetary policy refers to regulating the supply of money as a way of stabilizing the economy. 9. Ricardo is especially famous in international economies for demonstrating the advantages of free trade. 10. Hardly a day passes without hearing a commercial or reading an ad describing the advantages of one kind of program over another. 11. A firm of under 20 employees has a 37 percent chance of surviving four years. 12. Scientists’ constantly exploring the unknown, their looking for new knowledge and the answers to unsolved questions cannot be overestimated.
10. Try to understand the following song paying attention to the Gerund:
I LIKE HAVING A WALK
On Sunday afternoons in the middle of July
I like having a rest just looking at the sky.
I like listening to the birds singing in the trees
- In July...
I like having a walk when the sun shines.
And walking in the rain.
I love thinking of you and all the things you do
- On Sunday afternoons.
On rainy April Sundays I like staying at home.
I like reading a book or simply being alone.
I like watching a film or listening to some music
- In April...
11. Read the text and retell it in Russian:
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
David Ricardo is one of history's most influential economists. Born in England, Ricardo made a fortune on the London Stock Exchange. This wealth gave him the time to write and to serve in Parliament's House of Commons. His most famous work. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), marked him as the greatest spokesman for classical economics since Adam Smith.
Ricardo is especially famous in international economics for demonstrating the advantages of free trade. Free tradeis a policy in which tariffs and other barriers to trade between nations are removed. To prove his point, Ricardo developed a concept we now call the principle of comparative advantage. Comparative advantage enabled him to demonstrate that one nation might profitably import goods from another even though the importing country could produce that item for less than the exporter.
Ricardo's explanation of comparative advantage went as follows:
Portugal and England, both of whom produce wine and cloth, are considering the advantages of exchanging those products with one another.
· x barrels of wine are equal to (and therefore trade evenly for) ó yards of cloth.
· In Portugal 80 workers can produces barrels of wine in a year. It takes 120 English workers to produce that many barrels.
· Portuguese workers can produce ó yards of cloth in a year. It takes 100 English workers to produce ó yards of cloth.
We can see, Ricardo continued, that even though Portugal can produce both wine and cloth more efficiently than England, it pays them to specialize in the production of wine and import English cloth. This is so because by trading with England, Portugal can obtain as much cloth for 80 worker-years as it would take 90 worker-years to produce themselves.
England will also benefit. By specializing in cloth, it will be able to obtain wine in exchange for 100 worker- years of labor rather than 120.
As a member of Parliament, Ricardo pressed the government to abandon its traditional policy of protection. Though he did not live to achieve that goal, his efforts bore fruit in the 1840's when England became the first industrial power to adopt a policy of free trade. There followed 70 years of economic growth during which the nation became the world's wealthiest industrial power.
Grammar: 1. Participle I
2. Причастные обороты.
3. Независимые причастные обороты.
Дата добавления: 2015-09-13; просмотров: 5; Нарушение авторских прав