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XII. Render the text close to its original variant. I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

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Unit XV

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø ongoing dispute – тривала дискусія;

Ø dimensions – аспекти;

Ø kinship – спорідненість;

Ø childrearing – народження, виховання дітей;

Ø subtle elements – найменьш помітні;

Ø to cut across – бути протилежним;

Ø to address matters – займатися справами/розглядати питання;

Ø to infer – робити висновки;

Ø radiocarbon dating – датування радіо вуглецевим методом;

Ø population genetics – популяційна генетика;

Ø osteology – остеологія (the scientific study of bones)


II. Read and translate the text:



Anthropologyis often defined as being "holistic" and based on a "four-field" approach. There is an ongoing dispute on this view; supporters consider anthropology holistic in two senses: it is concerned with all human beings across times and places, and with all dimensions of humanity (evolutionary, biophysical, sociopolitical, economic, cultural, psychological, etc.); also many academic programs following this approach take a "four-field" approach to anthropology that encompasses physical anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology or social anthropology.

The four fields are:

· Biological or physical anthropologyseeks to understand the physical human being through the study of human evolution and adaptability, population genetics, and primatology. Subfields or related fields include anthropometrics, forensic anthropology, osteology, and nutritional anthropology.

· Socio-cultural anthropology is the investigation, often through long term, intensive field studies (including participant-observation methods), of the culture and social organization of a particular people: language, economic and political organization, law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, kinship and family structure, gender relations, childrearing and socialization, religion, mythology, symbolism, etc. (U.S. universities more often use the term cultural anthropology; British universities have tended to call the corresponding field social anthropology, and for much of the 20th century emphasized the analysis of social organization more than cultural symbolism.) In some European countries, socio-cultural anthropology is known as ethnology. Subfields and related fields include psychological anthropology, folklore, anthropology of religion, ethnic studies, cultural studies, anthropology of media and cyberspace, and study of the diffusion of social practices and cultural forms.

· Linguistic anthropologyseeks to understand the processes of human communications, verbal and non-verbal, variation in language across time and space, the social uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture. It identifies the many subtle elements of the world's languages, and documents, their structure, function and history. Subfields include anthropological linguistics. Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.

· Archaeology studies the contemporary distribution and form of artifacts (materials modified by past human activities), with the intent of understanding distribution and movement of ancient populations, development of human social organization, and relationships among contemporary populations; it also contributes significantly to the work of population geneticists, historical linguists, and many historians. Archaeology involves a wide variety of field techniques and laboratory procedures. Archaeologists predominantly study materials produced by prehistoric groups but also includes modern, historical and ethnographic populations. Archaeology is usually regarded as a separate (but related) field outside North America, although closely related to the anthropological field of material culture, which deals with physical objects created or used within a living or past group as a means of understanding its cultural values.

A number of subfields or modes of anthropology cut across these divisions. For example, medical anthropology is often considered a subfield of socio-cultural anthropology; however, many anthropologists who study medical topics also look at biological variation in populations or the interaction of culture and biology. They may also use linguistic analysis to understand communication around health and illness, or archaeological techniques to understand health and illness in historical or prehistorical populations. Similarly, forensic anthropologists may use both techniques from both physical anthropology and archaeology, and may also practice as medical anthropologists. Bio-cultural anthropology is a broad term used to describe syntheses of cultural and biological perspectives. Applied anthropology is perhaps better considered an emphasis than a subfield in the same sense as the standard four; applied anthropologists may work for government agencies, nongovernmental agencies, or private industry, using techniques from any of the subfields to address matters such as policy implementation, impact assessments, education, marketing research, or product development.

As might be inferred from the above list of subfields, anthropology is a methodologically diverse discipline, incorporating both qualitative methods and quantitative methods. Ethnographies—intensive case studies based on field research—have historically had a central place in the literature of socio-cultural and linguistic anthropology, but are increasingly supplemented by mixed-methods approaches. Currently, technological advancements are spurring methodological innovation across anthropology's subfields. Radiocarbon dating, population genetics, and digital video- and audio-recording are just a few of the many technologies spurring new developments in anthropological research.

III. Match the words with their definitions:

evolution a domain characterized by the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data via network system;
genetics a process of gradual and uninterrupted change that take place over many generations;
primatology all human beings as you considered them as a group;
humanity is the traditional stories, customs, habits, etc. of a particular community or nation;
population is the study of primates, of the genus Homo, especially Homo sapiens;
cyberspace is the ideas, customs, and art that are produced or shared by a particular society;
culture is the study of heredity and how qualities and characteristics are passed on from one generation to another;
folklore is the collection of people or individuals of a particular species


IV. Look through these words and expressions and provide their Ukrainian equivalents:

  the physical human being  
  forensic anthropology  
  patterns of consumption and exchange  
  gender relations  
the diffusion of social practices and cultural forms  
variation in language across time and space  
  a means of understanding  


V. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

§ ongoing dispute;

§ dimensions of humanity;

§ the diffusion of social practices and cultural forms;

§ subtle elements;

§ the interaction of culture and biology;

§ a broad term;

§ to address matters;

§ policy implementation;

§ intensive case studies;

§ technological advancements


VI. Find English equivalents for the following:

§ людська еволюція та здатність пристосовуватися;

§ наголошувати на аналізі соціальної організації;

§ процеси людського спілкування;

§ підтвердити документально структуру, функцію та історію мови;

§ розуміння культурних цінностей;

§ взаємодія культури та біології;

§ ґрунтовне вивчення справи;

§ доповнювати підходами різних методів


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