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Modern historiography

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Modern historiography began with Ranke in the 19th century, who was very critical on the sources used in history. He was opposed to analyses and rationalizations. He wanted eyewitness accounts and wanted an emphasis on the point of view of the eyewitness. Hegel and Marx introduced the change of society in history. Former historians had focused on cyclical events of the rise and decline of rulers and nations. A new discipline emerged in the late nineteenth century that analyzed and compared these perspectives on a larger scale and that discipline was sociology.

The French Annales School radically changed history during the 20th century. Fernand Braudel wanted history to become more scientific by demanding more mathematical evidence in history, in order to make the history discipline less subjective. Furthermore, he added a social-economic and geographic framework to answer historical questions. Other French historians, like Philippe Ariès and Michel Foucault described history of daily life topics as death and sexuality. They wanted history to be written about all topics and that all questions should be asked.

XIV*. Use the sources available to find some additional information on the issue. Present your reports in the class.



Unit XII



I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø reliable account – надійна/достовірна оцінка;

Ø to attribute an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events – приписувати важливу роль божественному в аналізі історичних подій;

Ø to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event – знаходити відмінності між причиною та безпосереднім походженням події;

Ø the height of ancient political agitation – ступінь стародавньої політичної агітації;

Ø to be considered semi-fabled – вважатися напівлегендою;

Ø a conscious effort to counteract the Greek cultural influence – свідома спроба протидіяти грецькому культурному впливу;

Ø lucid style – яскравий стиль;

Ø a descriptive history of peoples and places – описова історія народів та місць;

Ø to denounce immorality – засуджувати аморальність;

Ø praising German virtues – прославляючи Германські чесноти;

Ø the tops of the Noble savage – вища ступінь шляхетного дикунства


II. Read and translate the text:


Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need and the telling of history has emerged independently in civilisations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question. For the purposes of this survey it is written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. The earliest critical historical thought emerged in Greece, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere in the world.


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