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XIII. Render the text close to its original variant. I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:
I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:
Ø a meta-level analysis – теоретичний аналіз;
Ø resistant to a single encompassing meaning – стійкий до єдиного охоплюючого значення/поняття;
Ø methods of interpretation – методи тлумачення;
Ø to break down topically – класифікувати тематично/за тематикою;
Ø the study of the academic tools – вивчення наукових знарядь;
Ø in terms of authorship – на умовах авторства;
Ø authenticity or corruption of the text – автентичність/справжність або перекручення тексту
II. Read and translate the text:
Historiography has a number of related meanings. It can refer to the history of historical study, its methodology and practices (the history of history). It can also refer to a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "medieval history written during the 1960s"). Historiography can also be taken to mean historical theory or the study of historical writing and memory. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.
Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. Broadly speaking, historiography is related to the study of the writing of history, examining factors such as how the style of historical writing, methods of interpretation, and tools of investigation have changed over time, but it can also refer to a body of historical work.
Historiography is often broken down topically, such as "Historiography of Islam" or "Historiography of China". There are many approaches or genres of history, such as oral history and social history. Beginning in the 19th century with the rise of academic historians a corpus of literature related to historiography has come into existence, with classic works such as E. H. Carr's, What is History? and Hayden White's Metahistory.
There are two basic issues involved in historiography:
¨ First, the study of the development of histories is as an academic discipline over time, as well as its development in different cultures and epochs.
¨ Second, the study of the academic tools, methods and approaches that have been and are being used, including the historical method.
The term "historiography" can also be used to refer to a specific body of historical writing that was written during a specific time concerning a specific issue. For instance, "ancient historiography during the 1870s" would be taken to mean the methodological approaches and ideas about ancient history that were developed during that decade.
Conal Furay and Michael J. Salevouris define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written — the history of historical writing. When you study "historiography" you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."
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