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II. Read and translate the text. Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of




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  1. Ex. 10. Translate into English.
  2. Ex. 3. Translate into Russian.
  3. Form the verbs from the nouns and translate them.
  4. Form the verbs from the nouns and translate them.
  5. II. Match the words to make word combinations. Translate these word combinations in Russian.
  6. II. Read and translate the text
  7. II. Read and translate the text.
  8. Points) Translate the above text (ex. 3.3.) into Russian.
  9. Read and translate the following text. Write down unknown words.

SOCIAL HISTORY

Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. In this view, it may include areas of economic history, legal history and the analysis of other aspects of civil society that show the evolution of social norms, behaviours and more. It is distinguished from political history, military history and the so-called history of great men. Social history is often described as 'history from below' or 'Grass- roots history' because it deals with the every-day people, the masses and how they shape History rather than the leaders. While proponents of history from below and the French Annales school of historians have considered themselves part of social history, it is seen as a much broader movement among historians in the development of historiography. Unlike other approaches, it tries to see itself as a synthetic form of history not limited to the statement of so-called historical fact but willing to analyse historical data in a more systematic manner. A question in social history is whether the masses follow the leaders or whether it is the other way around.

An example of social history can be seen in the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Typical history would focus on who, what, when and where; whereas social history focuses on the causes of the movement itself. Social historians would pose such questions as, "Why did the movement come about when it did?", and "What specific elements fostered the growth?" "What elements hindered the development?" This approach is favoured by scholars because it allows for a full discussion on the sometimes less studied aspects. By understanding the past, we can begin to understand who we are now.

Another example of social history may be found within the domain of Translation Studies, an area of research in which some scholars focus on translation history. They study the different types of translations of a given source text that were produced over time, and try to posit explanations for the differing translation strategies, uses of language, and so on, which are observed. They thus seek to account for the form of a given translated text, by asking themselves such questions as: What was the input of the individual translator? How does that translator's life and attitudes as portrayed in their writings, shed light on their interpretation of the source text and their translation solutions? How was the translation affected by such other causes as the prevailing norms or values attached to language and translation at the time; how did the function or target readership affect the target text; how did the differences between the source and target languages contribute to the form of the translation; what was the role of editors, publishers and so on?



 

NATURAL HISTORY

 

Natural history is the scientific research of plants or animals, leaning toward the observational than experimental usually, and encompasses more research that is published in magazines than in academic journals. Natural history involves the research and formation of statements that make elements of life and life styles comprehensible by describing the relevant structures, operations and circumstances of various species, such as diet, reproduction, and social grouping. The term has grown to be an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organism biology. Most definitions include the study of living things (e.g. biology, including botany and zoology); other definitions extend the topic to include palaeontology, ecology or biochemistry, as well as parts of geology and climatology.



Natural history is the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments. It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, and stresses identification, life history, distribution, abundance, and inter-relationships. It often and appropriately includes an aesthetic component.

It has historically been a haphazard study, description, and classification of natural objects, such as animals, plants, minerals, and placed an importance and significance on fieldwork rather than lab work. A person interested in natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. Natural History is not commonly applied to the fields of astronomy, physics, and chemistry.

 

III. Find English equivalents for the following:

o показувати еволюцію соціальних норм, моралі та поведінки;

o штучна форма історії;

o як прості люди формулюють історію;

o відрізняти від політичної історії, військової історії й так званої історії великих людей;

o вважати себе частиною соціальної історії;

o поширені норми та цінності, приписані мові й перекладу відповідно до часу;

o брати до уваги форму перекладеного тексту;

o досліджувати різні види перекладів;



o підходи, що превалюють серед вчених;

o розуміючи минуле, можна зрозуміти хто ми є насправді

IV. Study the given below lexical units and provide their Ukrainian variants:

§ from the point of view of developing social trends;

§ not limited to the statement of so-called historical fact;

§ to allow for a full discussion on the less studied aspects;

§ reproduction and social grouping;

§ research and formation of statements that make elements of life;

§ how did the function or target readership affect the target text;

§ the input of the individual translator;

§ to view as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organism biology;

§ to stress identification, life history, distribution, abundance, and inter-relationships;

§ to place an importance and significance on fieldwork rather than lab work

V. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

· synthetic form of history;

· to account for the form;

· in a systematic manner;

· proponents of history;

· to focus on the causes;

· to foster the growth;

· within the domain of;

· to hinder the development;

· to positexplanations;

· the prevailing norms

 

VI. Interpret the following in English:

¨ "Grass- roots history";

¨ a haphazard study;

¨ to view historical evidence from the point of view of smb.;

¨ the input of the individual translator;

¨ target languages;

¨ to be an umbrella term;

¨ specific elements fostered the growth;

¨ diet, reproduction, and social grouping;

¨ fieldwork


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