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Text IIB. Time is running out. Or so people feel
Time is running out. Or so people feel. According to the latest research, forty-four per cent of British workers come home exhausted. More than half suffer from stress. By almost every measure, people are more pressured, more bothered about time - or a lack of it - than they have been for many years. Time, they feel, has been squeezed. All over the world, the old ways of managing time are disappearing. Fixed jobs, shared rhythms of shopping, travel and leisure, and common patterns of learning, marriage, work and retirement are on the way out. Instead, the world is having to come to terms with just-in-time production and multi-tasking computers, 24-hour shopping and video-on-demand, time-share holidays and home banking. All of these are symptoms of a revolution, a transition from an industrial time culture based around fixed timetables and a clear division of labour between men who went to work and women who looked after the home, towards a new culture based around flexibility, customisation and rapid flows of information. This new post-industrial culture offers, perhaps for the first time in history, the promise of people using time for their own needs. But far from ushering in a leisured Utopia, its most immediate effect has been a growing divide between those with too much work and those without any. In top jobs, long hours have become a mark of status and success. One in eight British managers works more than sixty hours a week and more than half take home work during the week. Part of the reason is the insecurity that has swept through so many white-collar jobs, encouraged the phenomenon of "presenteeism" rather than absenteeism - staying in the office even when there isn't any work to do. But technology has also played a part. Ubiquitous computers mean that our work will always be with us and our competitors will always be working too These pressures aren't confined to executives and professionals. While one in six households has no jobs at all, pressure to pay the bills and fear of redundancy mean that a quarter of all British male employees work more than forty-eight hours a week and nearly a fifth of unskilled and manual workers work more than fifty hours. Right across the world the long decline in working hours has stopped. The use of leisure is changing too. Intensive sports like aerobics are being substituted for slower ones like golf. Families are driving round zoos rather than walking around them. And teenagers "multitask" their leisure, watching several television channels at once while also fiddling with a personal computer. Some of the costs of this transition to a post-industrial order are all around us. Not only unemployment and overwork, high stress and high anxiety, but also less obvious ones like fatigue. But little has been done to address it head on, or to adapt institutions to a post-industrial way of life. Most institutions remain stuck in the industrial era. Within the family, even though most women now have jobs, they still do the bulk of domestic work - and consequently have fifteen hours less free time each week than men. Taken as a whole, time remains off the political agenda, treated as far less important than money or production. No political party seems to have acknowledged how much the landscape of time has changed. No one is responding to the mood that we need to find a better balance between work and life. And no one has quite come to terms with the fact that the old industrial model is being rapidly left behind. For those seeking a better balance between work and life, there is already a marvellous institution waiting to be used. Sabbaticals offer time off to recharge the batteries, to learn a new skill or just to travel the world. At the moment, these are a rare treat for academics. With the right funding arrangements, it is not inconceivable that we could, in the future, see every seventh year taken off as a matter of course. A previous generation of writers thought the goal was to escape from work. But this misses the point. Many people enjoy work. They find it fulfilling not only because it is a way to meet people but also because it sets goals and stretches capacities. This is surely why 78 per cent of 25-34 year-olds say that they would work even if there was no financial need. The challenge of a post-industrial age is not to escape from work but rather to achieve more autonomy and more ways for people to control the terms on which they work, its pace and texture
completely - абсолютно
crazy - сумасшедший
nightmare - кошмар
survey - исследование
clock off - заканчивать работу (в регулярное время)
run* out - истекать
latest - последний (по времени)
research - исследование
exhausted - измотанный, очень усталый
suffer (from) - страдать (от)
bother - беспокоить(ся)
lack (of) - нехватка
squizze - сжимать(ся)
manage - управлять, распоряжаться
disappear - исчезать
shared - здесь: одни и те же
common - общепринятый
pattern - образец
marriage - брак, женитьба
retirement - уход не пенсию, в отставку
instead - вместо, взамен
come* to terms - прийти к соглашению
just-in-time - во время
transition - переход
division - разделение
look after - ухаживать
towards - к
flexibility - гибкость
rapid - быстрый
flow - поток
promise - обещание
usher in - докладывать
immediate - немедленный
growing - растущий
divide - разделять
insecurity - небезопасность
encourage - поощрять, приветствовать
presenteeism - присутствие
ubiquitous - вездесущий
competitor - противник, конкурент
confine - ограничивать(ся)
executive - руководитель
fear - страх
male - мужчина
unskilled & manual - неквалифицированный
decline - снижение
substitute - замещать
fiddle - бездельничать
transition - переход
order - порядок
unemployment - безработица
overwork - переработка
anxiety - тревога, беспокойство
obvious - очевидный
fatigue - усталость
adapt (to) - приспособить, адаптировать
stuck - застрявший
bulk - множество
domestic - домашний
consequently - соответственно
agenda - повестка
treat - здесь: рассматривать
acknowledge - признавать
respond - отвечать
mood - настроение
leave* behind - оставлять позади
seek - искать
sabbatical - творческий отпуск
recharge - перезаряжать
rare - редкий
funding - финансирование
inconceivable - непостижимый, невероятный
previous - предыдущий
goal - цель
stretch - расширять
capacities - мн.ч. возможности
terms - мн.ч. условия
pace - скорость
texture - качество, структура
Ex. 1. Match the phrases with their Russian equivalents:
1.lack of time a/ феномен "присутствия"
2. fixed job b/ предыдущее поколение
3. based upon flexibility c/ вездесущие компьютеры
4. funding arrangements d/ нехватка времени
5. top job e/ уменьшение рабочих часов
6. fixed timetable f/ основанный на гибкости
7. flow of information g/ способ жизни
8. for one's own needs h/ фиксированная работа
9. phenomenon of "presenteeism" i/ неквалифицированный рабочий
10. ubiquitous computers j/ руководящая работа(должность)
11. decline in working hours k/ поток информации
12. high anxiety l/ для своих нужд
13. unskilled worker m/ фиксированное расписание (график)
14. way of life n/ высокий уровень тревоги
15. previous generation o/ договоренности о финансировании
Ex. 2. Match the phrases with their Russian equivalents:
Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
Answer the following questions:
1. How do people feel concerning time?
2. What are the old ways of managing time?
3. What are the sympthoms of transition from industrial time culture
4. towards a new time culture?
5. What are the costs of this transition?
6. What does a new post-industrial era offer?
7. What is meant by the word "presenteeism"?
8. Are these pressures confined to executives only?
9. Who has the right to sabbaticals?
10. What can sabbaticals used for?
11. Do young people dream of escaping from work?
Topics to discuss.
1. Man and Time.
2. Features (признаки) of the industrial era.
3. Phenomenon of "presenteeism".
4. Features of post-industrial epoch.
6. Escaping from work!?
(The partner of a law firm - his name is Avery - is explaining to Mitch, who is a newcomer, the rules of work in the firm).
They both declined dessert and ordered coffee. Mitch would be expected to be in the office by nine each morning, Avery explained as he lit a Montesino. The secretaries would be there at eight-thirty. Nine to five, but no one worked eight day. Personally, he was in the office by eight, and seldom left before six. He could bill twelve hours each day, every day, regardless of how many hours he actually worked. Twelve a day, five days a week, at three hundred an hour, for fifty weeks. Nine hundred thousand dollars in billable time! That was his goal. Last year he had billed seven hundred thousand, but there had been some personal problems. The firm didn't care if Mitch came in at 6 A.M. or 9 A.M., as long as the work was done. "What time are the doors unlocked?" Mitch asked. Everyone has a key, he explained, so he could come and go as he pleased. Security was tight, but the guards were accustomed to workaholics. Some of the work habits were legendary. Victor Milligan, in his younger days, worked six-teen hours a day, seven days a week, until he made partner. Then he quit working on Sundays. He had a heart attack and gave up Saturdays. His doctor put him on ten-hour days, five days a week, and he hasn't been happy since. Marty Kozinski knew all the janitors by first name. He was a 9 A.M. man who wanted to have breakfast with the kids. He would come in at nine and leave at midnight. Nathan Locke claims he can't work well after the secretaries arrive, so he comes in at six. It would be a disgrace to start later. Here's a man sixty-one years old, worth ten million, and works from six in the morning until eight at night five days a week and then a half day on Saturday. If he retired, he'd die. Nobody punched a clock, the partner explained. Come and go as you please. Just get the work done.
Ex. II. Translate the following sentences into English.
Topics to Discuss.
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