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Classification of conflicts in the system of professional training of students
System of higher education, as any social institution, is characterized by a variety of conflicts. Research and educational and professional field is a collection of all kinds of purposeful formation of the personality of the future specialist, and its content is the activity of transmission and assimilation of social and professional experience. So that is why here favorable social and psychological conditions for the development, formation of the student are necessary . Based on the characteristics of M. Rybalkova conflicts in school [6,7, p.180-181] let us make the characteristics of the conflict in the research and educational activities in the system of professional training. Between teachers and students can often arise various conflicts, because the confrontation between objects and subjects of education and training system in HE is a natural phenomenon:
1. Conflicts of activity: they are about students progress, improper, negligent performance or failure of performance of tasks outside the classroom. The reasons for such situations may include: fatigue, low pre-training, information stress, incorrect behavior of teachers, lack of prior instruction on homework, tutorials, materials for the performing of certain parts of the project development, layout and so on.
2. Conflicts of actions: arising from the violation by student internal regulations of university, dormitory, graphics of internships etc. The same act may be caused by various factors. Research and educational personnel adjusts the behavior of the student by evaluation of his actions by the lack of awareness of their true causes, sometimes using stereotypes about possible "misdemeanours" of students.
3. Conflicts of the relationship: arises in the sphere of emotional and personal relationships of students and teachers. They take personal meaning, generate long hostility of student to teacher, for a long time violate their interaction.
Conflicts in the system of student-teacher can be characterized by certain features:
· the teacher my take on responsibility for pedagogically correct, that is constructive allocation of conflict;
· the behavior of participants in the conflict in the research and educational activity is determined by their different social status ("student - teacher");
· the difference in the life experience of participants of the conflict and causes varying degrees of responsibility for mistakes in solving of conflicts;
· other students who are witnessing conflict, converted to its members, and conflict for them takes educational value;
· participants of the conflict, because of different social status, experience, age, understand events and their causes different;
· professional teacher position in the conflict commits to take the lead in solving it, putting in first place the interests of the student as an individual expert, which is formed;
· any teacher’s error in solving the conflict gives rise to new problems and conflicts, which involve other students;
· conflict in the research and educational activities is easier to prevent than to solve successfully.
Conflict specialists offer teachers guidance on conflicts of management. They are:
· control your emotions, be objective, give students an opportunity to substantiate their claims;
· do not ascribe to the student your understanding of his position, switch in communication to the form of "I" statements (not " you are cheating on me" but "I feel deceived");
· do not humiliate dignity of student (all next "offsetting" actions can not rectify the situation);
· do not expel the student from the audience;
· if possible do not seek help of administration;
· do not respond to aggression by aggression (it humiliates your dignity), do not touch his person, evaluate only concrete actions;
· do not be afraid of conflict with students and take the initiative of a constructive solution.
Pedagogical conflict is often accompanied by displays of aggression of opponents. (Aggression - is motivated destructive behavior, that is contrary to the rules and norms of existence of people in society, and does damage to the object of attack or cause psychological discomfort). Aggressive behavior - a form of response of opponents to the conflict situation.
Teachers should develop a system of adequate opposition to aggression to prevent destructive consequences of conflict. M.S.Mirimanova offers ways to reduce aggression in conflict both own and opponent’s [p.219]: passive (provides possibility to complain, to talk, tears relieving, relieve internal stress), active (physical activity of person promotes combustion of adrenaline – companion of aggression); logical (suitable only for purely rational people who want to know the essence of the conflict, that allows to look at the situation from the side).
Person uses three main methods of response to aggression.
1. Response-attack: similar response to replica of opponent (it is evidence of achieving by aggressor his goal - to attract attention of victim and self-sacrifice on account of him).
2. Logically-reasoned argument (an attempt to convince the opponent by argumentation of own point of view. The victim has a little chance to stop the aggression if the aggressor really wants to understand the essence).
3. The request and supplication (in most cases causes opposite result – encouraging of the aggressor, signaling to him that he had reached his goal).
3. Structure of the conflict - a set of stable connections of conflict, that ensures its integrity, identity to itself, unlike to other phenomena of social life, without which it can not exist as dynamically interconnected whole system and process. In addition to the concept of "conflict" the term "conflict" is often used - a fragment of the conflict, integral episode of its development, that is why the structure of the conflict may be regarded as a structure of conflict situation. The structure of the conflict includes several key components.
1. Members of the conflict - people whose degree of involvement in the conflict varies - from direct opposition to the indirect effects on the duration of conflict. There are distinguished several groups of participants in the conflict. The main parties to the conflict (or opposing forces) - are the subjects of the conflict, that directly perform active (offensive or defensive) actions against each other. Besides them support groups always are - individuals or groups; other participants – subjects, that occasionally affect the progress and outcome of the conflict (instigator, organizer etc.)
2. Information models of conflict situation of the major and minor parties to the conflict.
3. The subject of the conflict - objectively existing or imaginary problem, that is the basis of conflict: contradiction that leads to confrontation between the parties.
4. The object of the conflict - the reason, grounds for conflict (material value – resource; social values – power; spiritual value - an idea, norm, principle), that are values which opponents want to possess or use.
5. Micro- and macroenvironment. Conflict is not an isolated system, but is a social situation. It includes a closest surrounding of the person and social groups, which representative the individual are. To become an object of conflict, the element of material, social or spiritual sphere should be located at the intersection (crossing) of personal, group, community or public interests of subjects, which want to control them. [Antsupov A.I. - f.10, p.95]
Aim structure of conflict situation (by N.V. Grishin). It may be presented in 3 main dimensions.
1. Aims related to the object side of the conflict, which describes motives of getting the desired result (object aspect of conflict is associated with a particular zone of differences that exist between members of the situation).
2. Aims of the conflict members, associated with social aspects of it (their relationship with each other). This aspect of the conflict is described by the nature of the relationship of participants of the situation and their emotional guidance relative to each other (for example a) they may seek to reach own interests not taking into account the possible negative reaction of the partner and the consequences of their relationship; b) the efforts of the parties (one of them) can be limited by aspiration for preserving the relationship at an acceptable level).
3. Aims of the conflict members, associated with psychological need of justification of their position (actions for yourself) or to others.
Possibility of ambiguous interpretation of the contradictions between the parties to the conflict intensifies in their motive to be "understandable", but when it comes to others, in this way to receive support (by real actions or empathy). The conflict situation is partly paradoxical. On the one hand, the conflict initially includes justification of own position and actions ("the own meaning"): each of the parties to the conflict is sure that he is right and the partner is wrong. On the other hand, the conflict "by definition" includes a plurality of alternatives: opposition of parties aims to achieve the desired action from the partner, the desired behavior, thus possibility of another behavior of a partner is foreseen. As a partner, in turn, may expect the same, there is a mismatch: sense of position "for itself" is not semantic identical positions "for others."
This duality makes opponents to seek justifying of their actions more strong more they realized the possibility of ambiguous approach to the interpretation of their behavior.
Consideration of the purposes in isolation does not allow to determine the interaction strategy of the conflict, focusing on object content, both cooperative and adversarial behaviors can be realized. It regardes to other components of the target group.
Even the consideration of all the system of conflict parties aims does not exhaust the situation on the behavior forecast. For the analysis the variability of the aims must be taken into account, taking into account their hierarchy.
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