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Ex. 13. Indicate with a tick which sector of industry each business is in.

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Coal mining      
Computer assembly      
Travel agent      
Car showroom      


Ex. 14. Reading. Robyn Penrose, the managing director of a manufacturing company is

Travelling on business to Germany. He looks out of the airplane window, and begins

To think about the essentially English act of making a cup of tea.

What is the key point that this extract is making about economies?


Sunlight flooded the cabin as the plane changed course. It was a bright, clear morning. Robyn looked out of the window as England slid slowly by beneath him: cities and towns, tiny fields, connected by the thin wires of railways and motorways. Factories, shops, offices, schools, beginning the working day. People crammed into rush hour buses and trains, or sitting in their cars in traffic jams, or washing up breakfast things in the kitchens. All inhabiting their own little worlds. The housewife, switching on her electric kettle to make another cup of tea, gave no thought to the immense complex of operations that made this simple action possible: the building and maintenance of the power station that produced the electricity, the mining of coal or pumping of oil to fuel the generators, the laying of miles of cable to carry the current to her house, the digging and smelting and milling of ore or bauxite into sheets of steel or aluminium, the cutting and pressing and welding of the metal into the kettle’s shell, spout and handle, the assembling of these parts with scores of other components – coils, screws, nuts, washers, rivets, wires, springs, rubber insulation, plastic trimming; then the packaging of the kettle, the advertising of the kettle, the marketing of the kettle to wholesale and retail outlets, the transportation of the kettle to warehouses and shops, the calculation of its price. The housewife gave no thought to all this as she switched on her kettle.


In this passage a large number of operations belonging to the different sectors of the economy are mentioned. Classify the 18 activities from the passage according to which sector they belong to:

advertising products assembling building

calculating prices cutting metal digging iron ore

laying cables maintenance marketing products

milling metal mining coal packaging products

pressing metal pumping oil smelting iron

transportation welding metal


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