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Ex. 18. Translate the text into Russian in written form.

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  4. Comment on the meaning of the modal verbs and translate the sentences into Russian;
  6. Ex. 10. Study the different meanings of the following words and use them to translate the
  7. Ex. 10. Translate into English.
  8. Ex. 12. Translate into Russian in written form.
  9. Ex. 14. Translate the text in written form.


Every business has to decide where it is going. What it is trying to achieve. Words like objectives and targets are used in management theory. Whether these targets are related to items such as sales or budgets, they are broken down into sub-targets as they go further down the organizational hierarchy. The managers at the various levels in the structure are given these targets or objectives to achieve.

Sometimes they are given considerable freedom to achieve the targets in the way they see best. Sometimes their independence is limited, perhaps very limited. Subject to these constraints a manager has certain clear-cut functions. First, he has to plan to look ahead to anticipate. When you drive a car you look as far ahead as you can see what hazards lie ahead. If you see some children playing in the road ahead you start to slow down, check your breaks are working and generally watch for trouble. What would you think of a driver who kept his eyes on the road six feet in front of his bonnet? A manager who is able to anticipate problems has more chance of coping with them.

Organizing is the second management function. In this phase managers decide on the positions to be created and determine the associated duties and responsibilities. Staffing, choosing the right person for the right job, may also be included as part of the organizing function.

Another function of managers is to control. We have already seen that managers are expected to achieve targets of some sort or another. A manager has to keep these targets clearly in mind when he is involved in the decision-making process.





Ex. 19. Multiple choice. Complete the following sentences using the information from the



1. Management by objectives (MBO) is a system which was first described by _______ in 1954.

a. Adam Smith

b. Peter Drucker

c. Karl Marx


2. Most managers perform _________ basic functions.

a. four

b. five

c. three

3. There are many __________of MBO.

a. advantages

b. disadvantages

c. benefits


4. P.Drucker emphasized that an organization and its staff must have _______ goals.

a. appropriate

b. fundamental

c. clear


5. _______________ participate with the manager in developing objectives.

a. the subordinates

b. the workers

c. the employees


6. ________ isthe second management function.

a. planning

b. organizing

c. direction


7. Managers make decisions about _________

a. pay

b. promotion

c. both


8. Without innovation any organization can only expect __________

a. a long life

b. a limited life

c. a short life



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