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The concept of self is a kind of a modal view of what people are in the society

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And therefore what they are allowed to do.

Basic assumptions are related to the main sociodemographic categories (age, sex, social classes), but also to idealized conducts in particular roles (the perfect wife, man, child, businessman)

Basic cultural orientations

How the local people treat unknown people?

(a) Is human nature basically good or bad?

Unknown people are considered favourably and shown confidence or conversely – they are treated with suspicious when met for the first time

(b) Apprising others

When apprising others , emphasis is placed on:

(i) Age

(ii) Sex

(iii) Social classes

Who are the persons to be considered trustworthy and reliable, with whom it is possible to do business?

- Older or younger people are seen more favourable

- Trustworthiness is based on sex or not

- Social class play a significant role (or not) in concept of the self and the other

(c) Apprising oneself

Emphasis placed on the self-concept perceived as culturally appropriate:

(i) Self-esteem: low/high

- Shyly and modestly v. extrovert or even arrogant

(ii) Perceived potency: low/high

- Power should be shown v. hidden

(iii) Level of activity: low/high

- Busy people are the good ones v. unoccupied people are well


(d) Relating the individual to the group

Individualism versus collectivism

The individual is seen as a basic resource and therefore individual-related values are strongly emphasized (personal freedom, human rights, equality between man and woman); versus the group is seen as a basic resource and therefore the group values favoured (loyalty, sense of belonging, sense of personal sacrifice for the community)


Consumer behavior

Discuss three essential pointsof cultural influence on consumer behavior:

(a)Hierarchy of needs, which shapes demand;

(b)Culture-based values, which influence purchasing behaviour;

(c)Institutions rooted in social life, which influence consumer behavior.


What are the two levels of culture influences on hierarchy of needs? (Maslow’s theory)

Enlist cultural variation in eating habits. What is the social function of eating

(a communal meal)?


Discuss the following aspects of consumer behavior influenced by cultural differences


(a) Loyalty;

(b) Involvement;

(c) Risk;

(d) Cognitive styles;

(e) Legal environment;

(f) Dissatisfaction.


Ethnic consumption

Is ethnic consumption present on your market? If so, discuss it along 6 main attributes of ethnic community.

Is an ethnic consumption model static on your market? In which areas the process of assimilation is evidenced?



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