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Advertising as a Career in the USA
Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of products, services, or ideas by an identifiable individual or organization. It flourishes mainly in free-market, profit-oriented countries. It is one of the most important factors in accelerating the distribution of products and helping to raise the standard of living. Advertising cannot turn a poor product or service into a good one, but what it can do – and does – is to create an awareness about both old and new products and services. So the three main objectives of advertising are: (1) to produce knowledge about the product or service; (2) to create preference for it; and (3) to stimulate thought and action about it.
Careers in advertising may involve working for advertisers, media, advertising agencies, or suppliers and special services. In the opinion of American specialists, at most, only 35 colleges and universities in the USA have effective courses in advertising education. Fewer than 10 offer any truly significant amount of graduate work in advertising. However, advertising draws people from a variety of educational backgrounds.
Advertisers. Most companies that advertise extensively have advertising managers, or brand managers. Since these people help to coordinate the company’s advertising program with its sales program and with the company’s advertising agency, they must have aptitudes for both advertising and management.
Media. All media use salesmen to sell advertising space or broadcasting time. Media salesmen must be knowledgeable about business and skilled in salesmanship.
Advertising Agencies. A variety of specialists are required in an advertising agency because it develops advertising programs, prepares advertisements, and places them in the media. Those interested in advertising research and fact gathering should know both statistics and consumer psychology. Competence in media planning and evaluation is essential for a career in media. The media buyer must identify and determine the most effective media in which to expose the advertising messages, and purchase space or time in these media.
Copywriting requires creative writing skills and the ability to visualize ideas. The copywriter is a developer of advertising ideas and messages
Layout, typography, and visualization are essential for those in art, both for print advertising and for television commercials. Print-production specialists must know about printing, photoengraving, and typography.
Experience in “show business” dramatics, photography, music, playwriting and allied fields are excellent backgrounds for the television producer.
Also, every agency needs the account executive to be a mediator between an advertiser and an agency who should have background in accounting and managerian skills.
Supplies and Special Services. Positions similar to some of those already described are offered by the following services that support advertising: marketing research organizations, television and radio producers, film producers, art studios, photographers, producers of display materials, typographers, photoengravers, and product and package designers.
Job Prospects. More than 0,1% of the US population work in advertising, but their number is expected to grow rapidly. Opportunities for rapid advancement are generally greater in advertising than in most other industries. How rapidly a person moves up in responsibilities and pay is based largely on his own efforts, more than on age or length of employment. For women, opportunities in advertising – at least in advertising agencies and in retailing – tend to be greater than in most other business enterprises.
In general the rate of pay is comparable to that of business executives and professional men, such as physicians and lawyers in the same community.
Effective advertisement design takes full advantage of the buyers’ four reading habits:
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