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Types of dental diseases




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A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions, associated with specific symptoms and signs. The mouth is an important organ with many different functions. It is also prone to a variety of medical and dental disorders.

A dental disease (syn. mouth disease, oral disease, stomatognathic disease) is a disease which affects the teeth or oral tissues. The World Health Organization uses the term "Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws." Dental diseases may be classified into: 1) noncarious lesions; 2) dental caries; 3) carious complications; 4) the diseases of parodontium; 5) the diseases of oral mucous membrane.

Noncarious lesions of teeth present pathology of dental tissues, arising during teeth development (e.g, hypoplasia, fluorosis) or after the dentition (e.g. erosion, tooth wear, acid necrosis of hard tissues). Fluorosis is a chronic disease that is caused by excessive intake of fluoride. Excess of fluoride leads to uneven mineralization, increased fragility, defects of enamel. Tooth erosion is caused by acidic foods and drinks 'dissolving' away the surface of the tooth. Chemical necrosis happens to people who are constantly in contact with corrosive environments, mainly in manufacturing. Acid and some other substances damage the enamel. Acids may affect, directly entering the mouth, or dissolved in saliva after penetration through the respiratory system.

Dental caries (tooth decay) generally occurs when plaque is allowed to remain on the surface of a tooth for an extended period of time. Plaque is a sticky substance that is naturally formed in the mouth and contains bacteria which feed on the sugars that are present in foods and drinks. The bacteria produce an acidic waste product that can penetrate through the surface of the tooth, eventually leading to the formation of cavities.

Carious complications: Complications of dental caries include tooth loss, dental abscess, pulpitis, rotting teeth etc. A person with a dental abscess has a collection of pus near a tooth, caused by a bacterial infection. Pulpitis is the inflammation of the pulp, causing pain and pressure in the tooth.

The diseases of parodontium. Parodontium presents a complex of tissues surrounding root of the tooth and having the common genetic and functional features (periodontium, alveolar bone, gingiva with periosteum and dental tissues). Gingivitis, the first stage of periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, starts when the bacteria in dental plaque irritate the gums and cause infection. Parodontitis is the inflammation of parodontium tissues, characterized by progressive destruction of the parodontium and the bone. Periodontitis is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Parodontosis is characterized by a dystrophic lesion of parodontium. Parodontoma is a tumoral process in parodontium.



The diseases of oral mucous membrane include oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, smoker's palate, oral candidosis, smoker's melanosis etc. Leukoplakia is a precancerous, slowly developing change in a mucous membrane characterized by thickened, white, firmly attached patches. Nicotinic stomatitis, or smoker’s palate, is a common tobacco-related type of keratosis that occurs exclusively on the hard palate,and is classically associated with heavy pipe and cigar smoking.



Ex.10. Find in the text English equivalents for the following Ukrainian words and word-combinations:

Травми зубів, слизова оболонка ротової порожнини, запалення ясен, поступове руйнування, альвеолярна кістка, розвиток зубів, пляма, ускладнення, тканини ротової порожнини, подразнювати, тканини, що оточують корінь зуба, проникати через поверхню зуба, підвищена крихкість, пошкоджувати емаль.

 

Ex.11. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a dental disease? 2. What types of dental diseases do you know? 3. When does caries occur? 4. What is plaque? 5. What caries complications can you name? 6. What noncarious diseases can you call? 7. What kind of disease is pulpitis? 8. What diseases of parodontium do you know? 9. What kind of disease is periodontitis? 10.What structures does parodontium include? 11. What is dental abscess characterizedby? 12. What is leukoplakia characterizedby?

 

Ex. 12. Insert the missing words:

1. A dental disease is a disease which affects the ________ or gums. 2. Noncarious lesions of teeth present pathology of dental ________, arising during teeth development. 3.Erosion, tooth wear, acid necrosis of hard tissues are noncarious ________, occurring after the dentition. 4. Pulpitis is the ___________ of the pulp 5. Parodontium presents a complex of tissues having the ______ genetic and functional features 6. Parodontitis is the inflammation of parodontium tissues, characterized by ______________ destruction of the parodontium and the bone. 7. The diseases of oral ________ membrane include leukoplakia and stomatitis of different etiology.



 

Ex. 13. Read and translate the following text without dictionary:

Dental caries is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Caries can be classified by location, etiology, rate of progression, and affected hard tissues. Gum disease may refer to gingivitis or periodontitis.

Gingivitis is an irritation of the gums. It is usually caused by bacterial plaque that accumulates in the small gaps between the gums and the teeth and by calculus (tartar) that forms on the teeth.

Periodontitis refers to a number of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Three main categories of periodontitis exist: chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases.

 

Ex.14. Fill in the table and give the examples for different types of dental diseases:

Noncarious lesions Dental caries Carious complications Diseases of parodontium Diseases of oral mucous membrane
         
         
         
         
         
         

 

Ex.15. Insert the missing prepositions (by, with, to, of, in) and translate:

The first stage … gum disease is known as gingivitis. As with tooth decay and cavities, gingivitis is caused … bacteria in plaque that damage the gums by creating acid. Some … the signs and symptoms of gingivitis are swollen or puffy gums, bleeding when brushing or flossing, and persistent bad breath. Gingivitis is a reversible condition that can be treated … proper oral hygiene and professional care. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress … a serious type of oral disease known as periodontal disease. Periodontal disease can lead … a weakening of the support system that holds the teeth … place and the erosion of the gum line surrounding the teeth. Over time, periodontal disease can even cause loss … the teeth. While gingivitis is reversible, the damage caused … periodontal disease is permanent and is not reversible.

Ex.16. Translate the words in brackets into English:

Oral cancer may (вразити) any part of the mouth and (горло) such as the (губи), larynx, (ясна), cheeks and (язик). (Ознаки) and symptoms of oral cancer may include (кровотечу), a sore that doesn’t (загоюються) over time, white or red (плями) in the (роті), sore throat, and a lump or thickening in the (шиї). Anyone with any of the above symptoms that (тривають) for a couple of (тижнів) should consult with a health care professional (негайно).

 

Ex. 17. Read the following material:

SUMMARY

Резюме – це стислий виклад наукової праці, статті, тощо. В резюме висвітлюються найголовніші аспекти первинної наукової праці – статті, чи навіть книги:

  1. зазначення проблеми;
  2. її практичне вирішення;
  3. отримані результати;
  4. рекомендації щодо подальшого застосування.

Запропоновані фрагменти речень є найтиповішими при складанні резюме.

І. Головна тема чи проблема:

The present paper describes … Ця стаття описує …
This work considers … Ця робота розглядає ...
This article discusses … В статті обговорюється …
The present article analyzes … В статті аналізується ...
  deals with … розглядається…
  is devoted to the problems … Стаття присвячена проблемам …
This work gives a review of … Ця робота являє собою огляд …

ІІ. Мета вивчення:

  this study is the investigation of …   вивчення є дослідження …
  The object of investigations is the improvement of treating …   Метою дослідженнь є покращення лікування …
  experiment is the investigation of …   експеримента є дослідження …
  this work is the study …   цієї роботи є вивчення…

ІІІ. Зазначення основних положень:

It has been indicated (that) … Було вказано, що …
It is necessary to say (that) … Необхідно сказати, що …
This article has clearly shown (that) … Ця стаття ясно продемонструвала, що …
It has been noted (that) … Відзначено, що …
Much attention is paid to … Багато уваги приділяється …
Great attention is paid to … Велика увага приділяється …
Special attention is paid to … Особлива увага приділяється …
It was stressed (that) … Підкреслено, що …
It has been determined (that) … Встановлено, що …
It should be noted (that) … Необхідно відзначити …
The different points of view concerning … are considered. Представлені різні погляди щодо …
Thereby … Таким чином,
Therefore … Тому, отже,
Further … Крім того, більш того
Furthermore … До того ж , окрім того
Thus … Так, отже, таким чином; тому
It was suggested … The current views of … are considered. Up-to-date information about … was studied. Basic principles of … have been formulated. Було запропоновано … Вивчаються сучасні погляди на … Розглянута сучасна інформація щодо …   Були сформульовані загальні принципи …

IV. Застосування на практиці

New method is used …. Новий метод використовують …
  is experimented …   апробують …
This treatment is proposed … Данне лікування пропонується…
  is suggested …   пропонується…
This problem is investigated … Цю проблему досліджують …
  is discussed …   обговорюють …

V. Висновки та результати:

It can be concluded from this study (that) … На основі представленого дослідження можна зробити висновок, що …
On the basis of the results of this study it was proved … На основі результатів цього дослідження було доведено …
On the basis of these observations, an attempt is made to .. На основі результатів наукових спостережень зроблена спроба …
The given results showed (that) … Отримані результатів виявили, що …
The achieved data indicated … Отримані результати виявили …
It has been adequately demonstrated that … Було продемонстровано, що …

Ex.18. Compose summary to the text “Types of dental diseases”


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