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  1. A) Read the two texts and translate them into Russian in writing.
  2. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  3. A. Read and translate the text.
  4. A. Read and translate the text.
  5. A. Read and translate the text.
  6. A. Read and translate the text.
  7. A. Read and translate the text.
  8. A. Read and translate the text.
  9. A. Read and translate the text.
  10. A. Read and translate the text.


Хотя семья является особым институтом общества, не предполагающим грубого вмешательства, современное законодательство многих стран может регулировать семейные отношения. Когда люди собираются создать семью, они редко обращаются за помощью к юристу. Что же касается бракоразводного процесса (судебного разбирательства), то в этом случае совет специалиста просто необходим. Согласно законодательству ряда европейских стран истец должен убедить суд в том, что брак окончательно разрушен. Причинами для расторжения брака могут являться супружеская неверность, жестокость одного из супругов и т.д. Одной из важнейших проблем является защита детей разведенных родителей. Необходимо решить вопрос об опеке, финансовой поддержке со стороны отца, если дети будут жить с матерью. Раздел имущества – самый неприятный вопрос бракоразводного процесса. Но компетентный юрист поможет разрешить и его. Конечно, сумма капиталовложений в период совместного проживания очень важна, но помимо законного права собственности, должны учитываться работа женщины по дому, ее уход за детьми и даже эмоциональная поддержка мужа. [78]

8. Read the text ‘Women in Politics’ and answer the questions:

1. What was Grover Cleveland’s attitude towards women in politics?

2. How has the political situation for women changed in the last one hundred years?

3. In what way is further progress needed?

4. What is the ‘quota system’?


The world has come a long way since Grover Cleveland, the twenty-second president of the United States, said in 1905, the ‘sensible and responsible women do not want to vote’ and added that the position of men and women in society had been determined by God. Cleveland would be horrified to know that, only one hundred years later, women not only had the right to vote, but had been elected to the highest positions of power around the world.

However, despite the progress, women remain extremely unrepresented in politics. 99% of members of national parliaments worldwide are men. Even in countries like Sweden, with a very high proportion of women in politics, men still hold over 50% of the parliamentary seats.

Many political parties and some national governments have introduced a quota system. The basic idea is simple. When political parties prepare their lists of candidates for elections, they include the balance of the sexes. Some parties, such as the Greens in Germany, have lists that are 50% men and 50% women. In Argentina and Belgium, for example, every third person on candidate lists for elections must be a woman.[79]


Work in pairs and discuss the questions:

- When were women granted the vote in your country?

- How much political power do women have in your country?

- Would the sex of a political candidate ever influence the way you vote?

9. Speak on the topic “Law of property, natural resources and the environment”.

The main objective of this area of law is to ensure that the environment is protected against both public and private actions that fail to take account of costs or harm inflicted on the eco-system.

The major concerns are listed in two columns. Match a word on the left with the word on the right to form 13 phrases related to the law of property.

atomic waters

clean water

clean species

endangered sources

energy resources

natural pollution

navigable pollution

noise forests

ocean energy

oil dumping

pesticide disposal

tropical control

waste air


Now answer the following questions using the appropriate phrase from the above list.

- Which legislation prevents the destruction of large areas of trees in the equatorial areas?

- Which legislation protects the quality of the water that we drink?

- Which legislation controls the application of chemicals in farming?

- Which legislation prevents the disposal of rubbish at sea?

- Which legislation protects our ears?

- Which legislation protects those animals which are in danger of extinction?[80]

10. Read the messages from the webpage and complete the stories 1-6 with the sentences a-f.[81]

a) A series of underwater turbines are to be installed in the River Thames.

b) And none of these people was actually born here.

c) Even the car dealers are refusing to take them in part exchange.

d) I’m trying to cut down on my energy consumption.

e) The black carbon powder that is normally used is refined from pure oil and the end product costs more than vintage champagne.

f) This causes wide scale water pollution, chronic illness in farm workers and devastating effect on wildlife.

1) How green is your T-shirt?

Unless it’s made with organic cotton – not very. Cotton is one the most environmentally damaging crops grown in the world. In developing countries, more than 50% of all pesticides used in agriculture are sprayed onto cotton fields. (1) ______ In the USA cancer rates in cotton-producing states is considerably higher than in neighbouring states. And as it wasn’t enough, the final fabric is bleached, dyed and sprayed with a fire retardant before it is converted into the fashion item you buy in the shops. Organic cotton is grown without using any chemical pesticides or fertilizers and the final cloth is unbleached and dyed with natural plant dyes.

2) Cheap printer ink?

All lovers of creative recycling will be happy to hear about a new use for used car tires. A group of British inventors have found a way to extract the carbon from used car tires to make print ink. (2) ___ With more than one million tires being dumped every year, this new system should open the way to cheaper, greener printer ink.

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