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WORD BUILDING. 8. Form nouns using suffixes –ment, -tion, -ion, -ation:

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8. Form nouns using suffixes –ment, -tion, -ion, -ation:


to move to produce to reflect
to transform to develop to celebrate
to promote to construct  


9. Make nouns from the following verbs by adding –age to the end and making any other necessary changes in spelling:


use post break
store wreck stop
pass shrink leak


10. Make nouns ending in –cy from the following adjectives:


accurate private frequent
vacant urgent efficient


11. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type:


To work – worker; to produce – producer; noble – nobility;design— designer; change – unchangeable; to manufacture – manufacturer;expensive — inexpensive; beauty – to beautify;possible – impossible; to reflect – reflection; to train – trainer, to discover – to rediscover


12. Choose the correct translation of the following English words:


understandable понимать понятный понимание
meaningful значение значительный незначительный
successful успешный иметь успех успех
creative творчество создавать творческий
solution решать решение разрешимый
competition конкурировать конкурент конкуренция
previously прежде, раньше предыдущий предшествовать
application применять применение применяемый
consumption потреблять потребление потребляемый
definition определять определение определяющий
efficiency эффективный эффективность давать эффект



13. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:


ability - способность abroad - за границей access- доступ advantage– преимущество amateur –любитель, непрофессионал apparent- очевидный, явный to be essential – быть существенным to be worth – иметь ценность to change – менять, изменять communication – информация; коммуникация confirm - подтверждать contemporary – современный demand – требование experience –опыт; experienced specialist - опытный специалист fashion - мода to get acquainted with- познакомиться to insist on – настаивать на чем-либо interpreter - переводчик mentality - склад ума negotiations переговоры to notice - замечать opportunity – возможность to realize - понимать, осознавать to require – требовать to spend - тратить, расходовать stable - стойкий; устойчивый stylish - стильный, модный to sum up – суммировать; обобщать tolerance – терпимость; толерантность to travel – путешествовать to understand – понимать valuable- ценный vision– видение vulnerable –уязвимый, ранимый to waste time – зря тратить время


14. Read and translate the text below focusing on the reasons to learn foreign languages:


Text 5 A

To Learn or Not to Learn Foreign Languages?


Have you noticed that universal craziness about foreign languages? Everyone seems to study them now, even if there is no any practical use in it. What’s the point in learning a language if you go abroad once a year or even less and not necessarily to the region where this language is spoken? You can easily do without that «fashionable» knowledge.

Even if you travel a lot, you can easily survive with your Russian; it is the business of the travel agencies to make you feel comfortable anywhere. If you are a businessman, you know the price of time, it’s non-refundable. Are you ready to waste it, a good while of it, if you can easily hire an interpreter who has been studying the language for years and would do a better job of it? Indeed, it’s better to be a professional in your own field than an amateur in everything.

As long as you are an expert in your field, nobody cares what language you are speaking. In addition to everything above, language studying is a very time and money consuming occupation. It is stylish to be able to speak a foreign language, but is doing it worth it? There are a lot of opportunities to spend time and money in a more practical or at least pleasant way.

Yet, the way people live in the modern society requires new standards of communication and that is why it is an essential demand of the contemporary society to be able to speak foreign languages. A foreign language is an important advantage for an experienced specialist in any field. Higher education cannot be called complete without at least one foreign language.

Languages make possible the immediate access to the hottest technological information all over the world. It is very useful in business as well. Any businessman will confirm the statement that ability to use your partner’s language helps to establish the so-called personal contact that makes your negotiations more efficient. You will always be respected for your attempts to be closer to the culture of your partners. While negotiating it is preferable to be able to understand everything, at least in general, as the interpreter sometimes can set out the problem according to his or her own vision.

However, not only scientists and businessmen need languages. When travelling abroad a person has an opportunity to get acquainted with other cultures, traditions, and different mentality. It is easier to do by means of their language. It makes for understanding and tolerance towards other peoples’ views, and it is very important in our vulnerable world. To sum it all up, learning other languages is not a matter of fashion that can change in a year or two. The importance of it is apparent, and there is a stable tendency towards its rising; soon you would hardly be a valuable member of the contemporary integrated society if you feel absolutely helpless in communicating with non-Russian people. The earlier we realize it the better.

As you see, there are very important reasons to learn languages; it can never be called wasting of time. Firstly, it is essential if you want to meet the demands of an educated person. Foreign languages can educate — they help to accept the variety of mentalities existing in the world. Secondly, languages help other people to understand you while travelling abroad. Of course one can say that it is not difficult to feel comfortable on holidays, speaking only Russian, if you have chosen the right travel agency. But it is not so. It is not nice to be dependent on interpreters and travel agents. There is no pleasure in looking at advertisements and menus without understanding what it is all about.

And at last, but not least, it is business. It is impossible to be a professional without a good command of a foreign language. Each profession requires a certain language: Latin — for doctors, Ancient Greek for archeologists, French or Italian for researchers, English — for businessmen. Many centuries ago Aristotle wrote: «You are worth so many people as many languages you speak».


15. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words and expressions:


§ доступ § требование § уважаемый
§ соответствовать § умопомешательство § личный контакт
§ веские причины § точка зрения § потреблять
§ занятие, род деятельности § рекламные объявления § быть профессионалом в своей области


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