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Make up situations using the English equivalents of the words given above.




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  1. A) Draw a family tree for yourself and using the topical vocabulary explain the relationship between your immediate ancestors and any interesting facts about them.
  2. A. Make up short dialogues expressing your opinion, agreeing or disagreeing. Use the prompts given below.
  3. A. Read the text, give the English equivalents for the words in brackets, and single out the main items of the income statement.
  4. Add prefix re-. Translate the new words.
  5. Approaching the Text: Using prior knowledge and making predictions
  6. B) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.
  7. B) Make up and act out the stories illustrating the given proverbs.
  8. B) Substitute the words in italics with the idiom that would fit best in the context.
  9. B. 1) Read Management qualities and characteristics given in the box and categorize them into Personal, Business and Relationship qualities.
  10. B. Below is а list of words derived from the same stem. Indicate the parts of speech. Choose а suitable word for each blank in the sentences below.

23. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false:

 

1. There is no unique principle for or any constancy to the way in which the individual sciences and technologies within engineering are originally placed and subsequently grouped.

2. Medical and chemical principles are not required at all.

3. Power engineering and energy are largely electro-mechanical and may be associated with either chemical or mechanical engineering.

4. Controls are primarily of interest in mechanical, electrical, chemical and guidance technologies.

5. Mechanical, electrical, communications technology is largely rural.

6. Cold regions engineering is a specialty found in places like Alaska, Siberia and the Antarctic.

 

24. Find in Text 7B the situations in which the following word combinations are used:

 

Sciences and technologies; public health and environmental engineering; industrial engineering; mechanical engineering; rural applications; urban

 

25. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:

 

appeared important executing applied engines explanation engineering

 

The term 1 ___ is a modern one. The new Marriam-Wester Dictionary gives the 2 ___ of the word «engineering» as the practical principles. Nowadays the term engineering means the art of designing, constructing or using 3 ___. But this word is now 4 ___ in a more extended sense. It is applied also to the art of 5 ___ such words as objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. The most 6 ___ of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine and sanitary. In the middle of the 20th century there 7 ___ some other new branches of engineering – nuclear and space engineering.

 

Check your answers on p. 280.

 


26. Read and translate the text below:

 

Text 7 C

Ergonomics

 

Ergonomics, also known as human engineering or human factors engineering, is the science of designing machines, products, and systems to maximize the safety, comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them. Ergonomists draw on the principles of industrial engineering, psychology, anthropometry (the science of human measurement), and biomechanics (the study of muscular activity) to adapt the design of products and workplaces to people’s sizes and shapes and their physical strengths and limitations.



Ergonomists also consider the speed with which humans react and how they process information, and their capacities for dealing with psychological factors, such as stress or isolation. Armed with this complete picture of how humans interact with their environment, ergonomists develop the best possible design for products and systems, ranging from the handle of a toothbrush to the flight deck of the space shuttle.

Ergonomists view people and the objects they use as one unit, and ergonomic design blends the best abilities of people and machines. Humans are not as strong as machines, nor can they calculate as quickly and accurately as computers.

Unlike machines, humans need to sleep, and they are subject to illness, accidents, or making mistakes when working without adequate rest. But machines are also limited — cars cannot repair themselves, computers do not speak or hear as well as people do, and machines cannot adapt to unexpected situations as well as humans. An ergonomically designed system provides optimum performance because it takes advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of both its human and machine components.



One of the primary goals of ergonomics is prevention of workplace illness and accidents. Ergonomists work to eliminate these problems by designing workplaces, such as offices or assembly lines, with injury prevention in mind. They position tools and machinery to be accessible without twisting, reaching, or bending. They design adjustable workbenches, desks, and chairs to comfortably accommodate workers of many different sizes, preventing the need to continuously lean or overextend the arms.

Ergonomists also determine and design safe workplace environmental conditions, such as correct temperature, lighting, noise, and ventilation to ensure that workers perform under optimal conditions. Ergonomists also seek to increase worker efficiency and productivity when designing workspaces. They place those pieces of equipment used most frequently in closest proximity to the worker and arrange systems in ways that are convenient and easy to use.

Well-designed workspaces ensure that workers perform their jobs in optimal comfort, without experiencing the unnecessary physical and mental fatigue that can slow work performance, reduce accuracy, or cause accidents.

TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES

 

27. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:

 

§ наука проектирования § окружающая среда
§ обрабатывать информацию § конвейерные линии
§ точно § совершать ошибку
§ приспособлять, адаптировать § хорошо спроектированные рабочие места

 



28. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words:

 

§ to employ § fundamentals § to view
§ to be concerned with § to mix § parts
§ aims § to place § to define

 

29. Find in the text the antonyms to the following words:

 

§ to minimize § incomplete § like
§ weak § with § unsafe
§ seldom § badly-designed § necessary

 

30. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences:

 

1. Ergonomics is the science of designing machines, products and systems to maximize the safety, comfort and ___ of the people who use them.

(a. importance, b. effect, c. efficiency)

2. Ergonomists ___ the best possible design for products and systems.

(a. develop, b. imagine, c. create)

3. Ergonomists view people and the objects they use as one unit, and ergonomic design blends the best ___ of people and machines.

(a. abilities, b. skills, c. characteristics)

4. ___ machines, humans need to sleep, and they are subject to illness, accidents or making mistakes when working without adequate rest.

(a. like, b. unlike, c. as)

5. Machines cannot ___ to unexpected situations as well as humans.

(a. adapt, b. regulate, c. correspond)

6. One of the ___ goals of ergonomics is prevention of work place illness and accidents.

(a. main, b. important, c. primary)

7. They ___ tools and machinery to be accessible without twisting, reaching, or bending.

(a. make, b. position, c. design)

8. Ergonomists determine and design safe workplace ___ conditions, such as correct temperature, lighting, noise and ventilation.

(a. house, b. place, c. environmental)

9. Well-designed workspaces ensure that workers perform their jobs in optimal ___.

(a. convenience, b. comfort, c. atmosphere)

 

31. Read Text 7C once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you:

 

Agreeing I agree with you. Yes, that is what I think too. You are right! Disagreeing politely Yes, but don’t you think…? True, but I think… I see what you mean, but…

 

1. Ergonomics is an applied science.

2. Ergonomists draw on principles of industrial engineering, psychology, anthropometry and biomechanics to adapt the products and workplaces to people’s sizes and shapes and their physical strengths and limitations.

3. Ergonomists also consider the speed with which humans react and how they process information, and their capacities for dealing with psychological factors.

4. Humans are not as strong as machines, nor can they calculate as quickly and accurately as computers.

5. Machines are also limited.

6. Ergonomists seek to increase worker efficiency and productivity when designing workplaces.

7. Ergonomists place those pieces of equipment used most frequently in closest proximity to the worker and arrange systems in ways that are convenient and easy to use.

 


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