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WORD BUILDING. 8. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type
8. Guess the meaning of the words in bold type. Analyze their word-formation model:
To exist – existence — coexistence, function — functional – functionally, cheap – cheaply, individual – individuality, to build — to rebuild, to think – thinking – rethinking, class – classless, structure – structural;to accumulate– accumulation;to move– movement;to operate– operation;to satisfy – satisfaction; to relate – relationship;to develop– development; to concentrate – concentration;to consume– consumption;to depend– dependency — independence
9. Translate the following words analyzing their word-formation model:
10. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:
11. Read and translate the text below:
Text 8 A
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans («across») and portare («to carry»). The field of transport has several aspects which can be divided into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports). The vehicles generally ride on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, airplanes. The operations deal with the control of the system, such as traffic signals and ramp meters, railroad switches, air traffic control, etc, as well as policies, such as how to finance the system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes). Broadly speaking, the design of networks is the domain of civil enginering and urban planning, the design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace engineering, and the operations are usually specialized, though might appropriately belong to operations research or systems engineering.
d:\wiki\Image:Cessna177BCardinal05.jpgThere are different modes of transport. Modes are combinations of networks, vehicles, and operations, and include walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and modern aviation.
Worldwide, the most widely used modes for passenger transport are the automobiles, followed by buses, air, railways, and urban rail. The most widely used modes for freight transport are sea, followed by road, railways, oil pipelines and inland navigation.d:\wiki\Image:Cessna177BCardinal05.jpg
d:\wiki\Image:Acela_2000.jpgThere is a well-known relationship between the density of development and types of transportation. Intensity of development is often measured by Floor Area Ratio (FAR), the ratio of useable floorspace to area of land. As a rule, FARs of 1.5 or less are well suited to automobiles, those of six and above are well suited to trains. The range of densities from about two up to about four is not well served by conventional public or private transport. Many cities have grown into these densities, and are suffering traffic problems.
People need transport to go from one place to the other (from home to work, to shop, back to home, for instance). Transport is a «derived demand» in that transport is unnecessary but for the activities pursued at the ends of trips. Good land use keeps common activities close (e.g. housing and food shopping), and places higher-density development closer to transportation lines and hubs. Poor land use concentrates activities (such as jobs) far from other destinations (such as housing and shopping). Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.
Notes on the text
Floor Area Ratio — коэффициент общей площади
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
12. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
13. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words:
14. Find in the text the antonyms to the following words:
15. Find the right English equivalent for the following Russian words:
16. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:
The field of transport; transport networks; traffic control; vehicle; to deal with; broadly speaking, urban planning; specialized subfields; transport system; worldwide; widely used; passenger transport; to go from one place to the other
17. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:
18. Choose among the words in parentheses the one that corresponds to the text above to complete the sentences:
1. Transport or transportation is the ___ of people and goods from one place to another.
(a. movement; b. walking; c. rising)
2. The field of transport has several aspects which can be divided into a triad of infrastructure, ___ , and operations.
(a. vehicles; b. cars; c. carts)
3. The vehicles ___ ride on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, airplanes.
(a. never; b. seldom; c. generally)
4. The design of networks is the domain of ___ enginnering and urban planning.
(a. mining; b. civil; c. mechanical)
5. There are ___ modes of transport.
(a. different; b. no; c. single)
6. Worldwide, the most widely used modes for passenger transport are the ___.
(a. trains; b. ships; с. automobiles)
7. There is a ___ between the density of development and types of transportation.
(a. treatment; b. relationship; c.brotherhood)
8. People ___ transport to go from one place to the other.
(a. try; b. need; c.do not use)
19. Read Text 8A once more. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with you. Use the following phrases to help you:
1. The term «transport»is of Greek origin.
2. The field of transport has very few aspects, one of which is vehicles.
3. Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.).
4. Worldwide, the most widely used modes for passenger transport are the automobiles, followed by buses.
5. People seldom use transport to go from one place to the other.
6. There is not any relationship between the density of development and types of transportation.
20. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:
A Human-Powered Vehicle
A human-powered vehicle (HPV) is a vehicle powered solely by human 1 ___. The most common human-powered vehicle is the 2 ___. Of more limited but still sometimes functional use are the tricycle and some rowing boats. Of common 3 ___ use are the skateboards, ice skates, and roller skates. Many other kinds of vehicles can employ human power, including submarines, 4 ___, hydrofoils (судно на подводных крыльях), hovercraft (судно на воздушной подушке), and kinetic sculpture vehicles. In 1969, artists in a small northern California 5 ___ began the Kinetic sculpture race which has grown to a 42 mile, three-day all terrain, human-powered sculpture race and county wide event. It is held every year in the last weekend in May. The first 6 ___ authenticated take-off and landing of a human-powered aircraft (one capable of powered takeoffs, unlike a glider) was done in November 1962 by Derek Piggott in Southhampton University's Man Powered Aircraft (SUMPA). Perhaps the best-known human-powered plane is the Gossamer Albatross, which flew across the English Channel in 1979. Recumbent bicycles are the 7 ___ human-powered vehicles: as of 2004, Sam Whittingham holds the record, having cycled for 200 m at 81.00 mph (130.36 km/h).
Check your answers on p. 280.
21. Read the following text and render it according to the following scheme:
Text 8 B
Who Invented the Automobile?
This question does not have a straightforward answer. The history of the automobile is very rich and dates back to the 15th century when Leonardo da Vinci was creating designs and models for transport vehicles. There are many different types of automobiles - steam, electric, and gasoline - as well as countless styles. Exactly who invented the automobile is a matter of opinion. In terms of the lives of average people, there is little doubt that the automobile is the most revolutionary invention in the history of transportation since the wheel. The basic premise of the automobile is simple; choose a wheeled vehicle from the many types typically pulled by horses or oxen, add a motor and create a self-propelled, personal transportation vehicle.
The earliest ancestor of the modern automobile is probably the Fardier, a three-wheeled, steam-powered, 2.3-mph vehicle built in 1771 by Nicolas Joseph Cugnot for the French minister of war. This cumbersome machine was never put into production because it was much slower and harder to operate than a horse-drawn vehicle. Amedee Bollee, also a Frenchman, built an improved 12-passenger steam car in 1873, but the steam engine proved impractical for a machine that was intended to challenge the speed of a horse-and-buggy. The invention of the practical automobile had to await the invention of a workable internal combustion engine.
The milestone vehicle was built in Germany in 1889 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. Powered by a 1.5 hp, two-cylinder gasoline engine, it had a four-speed transmission and traveled at 10 mph. Another German, Karl Benz, also built a gasoline-powered car the same year. The gasoline-powered automobile, or motor car, remained largely a curiosity for the rest of the nineteenth century, with only a handful being manufactured in Europe and the United States.
The first automobile to be produced in quantity was the 1901 Curved Dash Oldsmobile, which was built in the United States by Ransom E. Olds. Modern automobile mass production, and its use of the modern industrial assembly line, is credited to Henry Ford of Detroit, Michigan, who had built his first gasoline-powered car in 1896. Ford began producing his Model T in 1908, and by 1927, when it was discontinued, over 18 million had rolled off the assembly line.
22. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box:
The history ___ the automobile begins ___ the technological breakthroughs that occurred ___ Europe ___ the early 1800's and continues a century later ___ the pioneering efforts ___ American manufactures to begin mass-producing cars. The world economic downturn leading up to World War II led to consolidation ___ the fragmented automobile manufacturing market, while ___ the postwar period, renewed economic growth, television advertising, and an expanding road system accelerated sales ___ automobile producers ___ many industrialized countries. Design, service, and speed became trademarks ___ the successful companies, as evidence ___ the every growing range ___ car models and the increasing popularity ___ NASCAR racing ___ the United States.
However, as the industry matured, manufacturers had to reach an accommodation ___ labor unions, increasing government controls, and consumer expectations ___ annual changes ___ product design. Trade conflicts led to Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and new questions about the value ___ globalization. The automobile, while providing greater personal freedom and economic growth, also served as the basis ___ questioning the value ___ technological progress. Scholars considered the effects of urban sprawl (and the advantages of urban planning), and the tradeoffs ___ economic growth, pollution, and conservation. Subsequent industry mergers, the ongoing threat ___ oil crises and environmental degradation continue to affect the automobile industry today.
23. Read the text below to learn about geographical challenges facing urban transportation:
Text 8 C
Geographical Challenges Facing Urban Transportation
Cities are locations having a high level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas, when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility. Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labor, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations. Some problems are ancient, like congestion (which plagued cities such as Rome), and others are new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts, notably CO emissions linked with the diffusion of the internal combustion engine. Among the most notable urban transport problems are:
Traffic congestion and parking difficulties. Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban agglomerations. It is particularly linked with the diffusion of the automobile, which increases the demand for transport infrastructure that has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility.
Public transport inadequacy. Many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or underused. During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users, while low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas.
Difficulties for pedestrians. These difficulties are either the outcome of intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles are impaired, but also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities.
Loss of public space. The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities which once crowded the streets such as markets, agoras, parades and processions, games, and community interactions. These have gradually disappeared to be replaced by automobiles. In many cases, these activities have shifted to shopping malls while in other cases, they have been abandoned altogether. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when traffic is high.
Environmental impacts and energy consumption. Pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations. Further, energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased and so the dependency on petroleum.
Accidents and safety. Growing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities, especially in developing countries. As traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets.
Land consumption. Between 30 and 60% of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of urban transportation.
Freight distribution. The materialization of the economy has produced growing quantities of freight moving within metropolitan areas. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with passengers’ circulation, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic. City logistics strategies can be established to mitigate this problem.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
24. Find in the text the phrases which mean the same as:
25. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:
Concentration of economic activities; urban mobility; environmental impacts; internal combustion engine; prevalent transport problems; crowdedness; public activities; street activities; serious impediment; quality of life; accidents and fatalities; passengers’ circulation; mobility of freight
26. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:
27. Choose the correct word from Text 8C to complete the sentences:
1. Cities are locations having a high ___ of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems.
2. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas, when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, ___ satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility.
3. Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport ___ in large urban agglomerations.
4. The majority of roads are ___ owned and free of access.
5. ___, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations.
6. Growing ___ in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities.
28. Discuss the following situations from the text:
29. Match each word on the left with the correct definition on the right:
30. Work in pairs and decide whether these statements are true or false:
1. Cities are locations having a low level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are not supported by transport systems.
2. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas, when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility.
3. Urban productivity is not dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labor, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations.
4. All transport problems are new, such as urban freight distribution or environmental impacts, notably CO emissions linked with the diffusion of the internal combustion engine.
5 .During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users.
6. The roads are privately owned and are not free of access.
7. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space.
8. Pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations.
9. Growing traffic in urban areas is not linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities.
10. The materialization of the economy has produced growing quantities of freight moving within metropolitan areas.
11. There are several dimensions to the urban transport problem, most of them linked with the dominance of the automobile.
31. Read the text and give its brief summary:
Text 8 D
Automobile use obviously produces a variety of advantages such as performance, comfort, status, speed, and convenience. These advantages jointly illustrate why automobile ownership continues to grow worldwide, especially in urban areas. Several factors influence the growth of the total vehicle fleet, such as sustained economic growth (increase in income and quality of life), complex individual urban movement patterns (many households have more than one automobile), more leisure time and suburbanization. The acute growth in the total number of vehicles also gives rise to congestion at peak traffic hours on major thoroughfares, in business districts and often throughout the metropolitan area. Over time, a state of automobile dependency has emerged which results in a diminution in the role of other modes, thereby limiting still further alternatives to urban mobility. There are two major factors contributing to automobile dependency:
Underpricing and consumer choices. Most road infrastructures are subsidized as they are considered a public service. Consequently, drivers do not bear the full cost of automobile use. Like the «Tragedy of the Commons», when a resource is free of access (road), it tends to be overused and abused (congestion). This is also reflected in consumer choice, where automobile ownership is a symbol of status, freedom and prestige, especially in developing countries. Single home ownership also reinforces automobile dependency.
Planning and investment practices. Planning and the ensuing allocation of public funds aim towards improving road and parking facilities in an ongoing attempt to avoid congestion. Other transportation alternatives tend to be disregarded. In many cases, zoning regulations impose minimum standards of road and parking services and de facto impose a regulated automobile dependency.
Cities are important generators and attractors of movements, which have created a set of geographical paradoxes that are self-reinforcing. There are several levels of automobile dependency with their corresponding land use patterns and alternatives to mobility. Among the most relevant indicators of automobile dependency are the level of vehicle ownership, per capita motor vehicle mileage and the proportion of total commuting trips made using an automobile. A situation of high automobile dependency is reached when more than three quarters of commuting trips are done using the automobile.
For the United States, this proportion has remained around 88% over the recent years. Automobile dependency is also served by a cultural and commercial system promoting the automobile as a symbol of status and personal freedom, namely through intense advertising and enticements to purchase new automobiles. The second half of the 20th century saw the adaptation of many cities in North America and Europe to automobile circulation. Motorized transportation was seen as a powerful symbol of modernity and development. Highways were constructed, streets were enlarged, and parking lots were set often disrupting the existing urban fabric. However, from the 1980s, several cities were trying to limit automobile circulation by a set of strategies including:
Dissuasion. Although automobile circulation is permitted, it is impeded by regulations and physical planning. For instance, parking space can be severely limited.
Prohibition of downtown circulation. During most of the day the downtown area is closed to automobile circulation but deliveries are permitted during the night. Such strategies are often undertaken to protect the character and the physical infrastructures of an historical city.
Tolls. Imposing tolls for parking and entry to some parts of the city. Most evidence underlines, however, those drivers are willing to bear additional toll costs, especially when commuting is concerned.
Tentative solutions have been put forth such as transport planning measures (synchronized traffic lights, regulated parking), limited vehicle traffic in selected areas, the promotion of bicycle paths and public transit. In Mexico City, vehicle use is prohibited according to license plate numbers and the date (even-uneven). Affluent families have solved this issue by purchasing a second vehicle, thus worsening the existing situation. Singapore is the only country in the world which has successfully controlled the amount and growth rate of its vehicle fleet by imposing a heavy tax burden and purchasing permits on automobile owners.
There are many alternatives to automobile dependency such as intermodality (combining the advantages of individual and collective transport) or carpooling (strengthened by policy and regulation by the US government). These alternatives, however, can only be partially executed as the automobile remains the prime choice for providing urban mobility. There are however powerful countervailing forces that can influence modal choice, namely congestion.
TEXT AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
32. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:
33. Match each word in A with the Russian equivalent in B:
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