There are several principles and conventions which we follow in discourse (text and conversation).


1. We use various words and phrases (usually at the beginning of a sentence/ a clause) to express a relationship between what we are about to say and what we have just said:


Types Linkers Discourse examples
Positive addition (giving extra information) Furthermore, Further, In addition, On top of this, Whats more, Moreover, Besides, Not to mention the fact that You can save yourself a full five per cent of interest with our new credit plan. Furthermore, we are offering no repayments for a year to customers who sign up before the end of the month.
Negative addition Neithernor ; Nor; Neither Barry doesnt know how to drive. Nor does Kevin.
Cause/ reason (introducing the result of previous information) Consequently, As a consequence, It follows from this, For this reason, As a result, So, Therefore, As Because of (this) On the grounds that Since Due to / Owing to In view of Now that For Thus Your repayment are now three months in arrears. Consequently, we have no option but to withdraw credit facilities immediately. She decided to order a salad now that she started her diet. He was the only child of a rich banker and, as a consequence, he was very spoilt.
Contrast/ Concession/ Contradiction (introducing information which contrasts with what has been mentioned previously) However, All the same, At the same time, On the other hand, In contrast But Yet/ And yet Whereas While Even though Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Despite this, Even so, Still/ (and) still Regardless of Admittedly, Alternatively, On the contrary, Riding a bicycle may not be as comfortable as driving a car; however, it is much more environmentally friendly. Your counsel has made a convincing case in mitigation, Mr. Belgrave. Nevertheless, we feel that in a case of this gravity the only appropriate option is a custodial sentence. You could tell her the bad news; on the other hand/ alternatively, you could let her find out herself.
Similarity Similarly, In the same way, Likewise, Equally, A glass of milk before you go to bed may help you sleep. Similarly, a hot bath could do the trick.
Emphasis Besides, Not only this butalso as well as as well. In fact, As a matter of fact, To tell you the truth, Actually, Indeed, Let alone in particular , especially, I dont think she fits this job. In fact, she is far too young. All the performers were good, but Pavarotti, in particular, was magnificent.
Exemplification For example, For instance, Particularly, Yes, I do think Henry is rude. For example, he shouts at waiters.
Clarification That is to say, Specifically, In other words, To put it another way, I mean Or rather Shes angry. Specifically, shes angry at you. Jessica isnt the most popular person around here. In other words, no one likes her.
Temporal linkers (expressing a relationship of time or sequence with the previous information) Beginning: Initially, First(ly), At first First of all, To start/to begin with, Continuing: Secondly, After this/that Then Afterwards, Next, Before this, Concluding: Finally, At last Eventually, In the end, Lastly, Last but not least, First of all, Id like to thank my mother Then, I must thank everyone involved in making this wonderful film. The troops trudged for weeks through the snowy wastes. Finally, as they were nearing the point of exhaustion, they saw the faint lights of the city on the horizon.
Summarizing In conclusion, In summary, To sum up, As I have said, As (it) was previously stated, On the whole, All in all, Altogether, In short, To put it briefly, Ultimately, To sum up, the government must spend more money on public service.



2. Other linking words and phrases:


Dismissing something Anyway, Im not sure a thank-you letter is rally necessary. Anyway,I cant be bothered to write one.
Picking up a topic Talking of Speaking of I like Natalie. I went on holiday with her. Talking of holidays, what are your plans for this year?
Supporting a statement After all, We dont need to drive to the club, do we? After all, its only about 200 metres from here.
Changing the subject By the way, Its a lovely day, isnt it? Yes, beautiful. By the way, have you seen Melanie?




: 2015-04-15; : 142; !;

lektsii.com - . - 2014-2024 . (0.008 .)