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Schooling in Britain.

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The English educational system is much more complicated than in our country. In Britain boys and girls go to school from the age of five to fifteen; some go till the age of sixteen or eighteen. The children of the rich get a far better education than the children of the poorer classes. They attend expensive Public Schools, e.g. Eton or Rugby where pupils have to pay much money for their studies. Later on many of them study at Oxford or Cambridge. High political and business positions are open to them.

For children of the workers it is much more difficult to get a higher education. First they go to a Primary School. When they are eleven years old they have to sit for an examination (= to take an examination). The "less intelligent" go to a Secondary Modern School, the "intelligent" (about 20 per cent) go to a Secondary Technical School or to a Secondary Grammar School. The latter leads to the University. Many parents and teachers against this examination and the separation of the children at this age.

A new type of school, the Secondary Comprehensive School, does not separate the children. It provides a Secondary Grammar School course for interested pupils. These Schools are showing good results. Progressive people support them and fight against all forms of privilege in education.

Supplementary text:

British Way of Life

1.Do you know that in Britain:

it is polite to queue for everything: buses, theatre, tickets, in shops and so on? strangers usually don't talk to each other on trains? people say "thank you" when they give money to a shop assistant? people open presents in front of people they receive them from? people don't take their shoes off when they enter a house?

British people are said to be good listeners, in other words, they don't interrupt the person who is just speaking?

2. As well as other countries Britain also has fast food, so-called 'takeaways'. Takeaways sell hot food you carry out to eat in other place. The most famous British takeaway is the fish and chip shop.

Wimpy is a trademark for a fast food chain in Britain. J.Wellington Wimpy was a friend of cartoon character Popeye who loved hamburgers.

Britain's appetite for convenience foods is growing. Instead of meals many people eat crisps, snacks, nuts and cereal bars.

3. About half the population of Britain take part regularly in sport. The majority of those who do are men between the age of 20 and 45. The most popular outdoor sporting activity is walking (two miles or more). The most popular indoor activity is snooker and the similar games of billiards and pool.

4. In Britain, a twenty-first birthday party traditionally mark 'the coming of age'. Today, this tradition is less important because young people get so many rights before they are twenty- one. For example, in Britain young people have the right to vote at the age of eighteen. Now, the eighteenth birthday is becoming as important as the twenty-first.

5. In Britain,marriage is a relationship where a man and woman make a legal agreement to live together.

The agreement can be religious (such as in church) or in a civil ceremony. Today only 50% of people get married in church. Young people under sixteen can't get married. When you are sixteen and seventeen your parents must agree.

The average age for men to get married is 25 1/2. The average age for women is 23.

6. There are six and a half million dogs and six to eight million cats in Britain. This means that approximately one in ten people own a dog or cat. Every year the British spend over 1 ½ billion pounds on pet food such as tinned dog food. They also support over 380 charities and societies which aim to protect animals.

Words to the text:

queue /'kju:/ стояти в черзі

interrupt /,intərʌpt/ перебивати

takeaway food /'teikəwei/ обід до дому

chain /'t∫ein/ мережа магазинів

cartoon /ka:'tu:n/ мультфільм

convenience food /kən'vi:njəns/ продукти, готові до вживання

snack /'snæk/ закуска, сніданок

cereal /'siəriəl/ хлібний, зерновий

snooker /'snu:kə/ вид більярдної гри

pool /'pu:l/ пул (більярдна гра)

tinned /'tind/ консервований

charity /'tjæriti/ благодійна установа

Topics for discussion:

1. Some ways of British and Ukrainian life.

2. Fast food in Britain and Ukraine.

3. Sports in Britain.

4. 'The coming of age'.

5. Marriage.

6. The near-by life. Our pets.




Lesson A. Text: Refrigerants.

Grammar: The Infinitive, Forms and Functions

Lesson B.Translation Practice. Word-building. Suffixes. Verbs doand make.

Texts: Secondary Refrigerants. Montreal Protocol.

Lesson C. Speech Practice: Telephoning. Making an appointment.

Lesson A.

Key words: cooling agent /'ku:1іŋ 'eiʒnt/ холодильний агент

cycle /'saikl/ цикл

vaporize /,veipə'raiz/ випаровувати

thermodynamic /,θə:mədai'nemik/ термодинамічний

property /'propəti/ властивість

at an onset на початку
meet the

requirements /ri'kwaiəmənts/ відповідати вимогам

hydrocarbon /'haidrou' ka:bən/ вуглеводень

chemically /'kemikəli/ химічно

inert /i'nə:t/ інертний

to the extent /iks'tent до ступеня

to a great extent значною мірою

suitable /'sju:təbl/ придатний; що відповідає

pure /'pjuə/ чистий

lubricating oil /'lu:brikeitiŋ 'oil/ мастило

equipment /i'kwipmənt/ обладнання; устаткування

(un)favorably /ʌn'feivərəbli/ (не)сприятливо, (не)прихільно

despite /dis'pait/ не зважаючи на

stringent /'strinʒənt/ суворий

precaution /pri'ko:∫n/ застереження

to some degree до деякої міри

furthermore /'fə:ðəmo:/ більш того

contaminate /kən'tæmineit/ забруднювати

foodstuff /'fu:dstʌf/ харчові продукти

leak /'li:k/ витік

in the event у випадку

Lexical Drills.

I. Divide these words into two groups and give a name to each group:

refrigerant, ammonia, evaporator, cooling agent, condenser, boiler, hydrocarbons, heat exchanger, freon, absorption system, absorber, pump, secondary refrigerant, expansion valve, carbon dioxide.

II. Translate the following word-combinations from Ukrainian into English. Write them:

1)відповідати вимогам; 2) холодильний агент; 3) термодинамічні властивості; 4) мастильний матеріал, мастило; 5) до деякої міри; 6) суворі застереження; 7) парокомпресіонний цикл; 8) головне урахування; 9) холодильне обладнання; 10) у випадку.

III. Read the definitions and say one word instead of each:

1. A substance which acts as a cooling agent by absorbing heat from a body or another

2. The process of completely evaporating that portion of the cold liquid refrigerant which is
delivered through the expansion valve into the evaporator.

3. The process of removing heat from vapour so that it will begin to condense.

4. The process whereby the vapour is completely liquefield or condensed.

5. A combination of four operations which take place on the compressor. These four opera-­
tions combine to pump the vapour from the evaporator and to deliver it to the condenser.


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