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III. For the verbs in brackets, use the Gerund and answer the following questions.
1. Do you like (get up) early?
2. Do you enjoy (be) alone?
3. Are you interested in (learn) languages?
4. Are you fond of (read) science fiction?
5. Have you succeeded in (master) English?
6. Do you prefer (cycle) or (drive)?
7. Are you looking forward to (go) on holiday?
8. Do you insist on (be tested) onсe more?
9. Can you help (smile) looking at little cats?
10. Will you mind (open) the window?
IV. Put the correct forms of the Gerund:
1.(Increase) or (decrease) the capacity of the compressor will, in effect, increase or decrease the capacity of the entire system.
2. After (discuss) at the conference the reports will be published in the journal.
3. Before (get) these results, the investigators carried out a lot of experiments.
4. Their work resulted in (discover) of new safe refrigerants.
5. There are many methods of (bring) the refrigerating capacity into balance with the refrigerating load.
6. Workers should avoid (dress) loose clothing near machines.
7. The engine stopped (work) because of the fuel (exhaust).
8. After (heat) the mixture we obtained a substance with new properties.
9. These methods were tried without (obtain) the necessary results.
10.What instrument do we use for (measure) temperature?
Read and translate the text:
ELEMENTARY ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE.
In an absorption refrigeration cycle the compressor is replaced by an absorber and a generator. The system operates essentially upon the standard vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, but a secondary fluid is introduced in addition to the refrigerant. In an absorbing chamber the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator comes in contact with and is absorbed by this secondary fluid or absorbent. This strong absorbent (high in concentration of absorbed refrigerant) is then transferred to the generator, where heat is applied, and the refrigerant vapor is driven off and into the condenser at high pressure. The resulting weak absorbent (weak in concentration of refrigerant) is then returned to the absorber, where the cycle is repeated.
So, the simplest form of refrigeration by evaporation is represented by an evaporator coil passing through an insulated space to be refrigerated. Alcohol, ether, or some other readily evaporated liquid is allowed to flow in at the top of the evaporator, and a fan is supplied to create a steady flow of air over the evaporating liquid.
Several improvements have been added to the elementary system. The evaporator has been extended into a complete circuit, and an absorber has been added. Further improvements have resulted in a practical absorption refrigeration system. Here the strong solution of alcohol and water is drained by gravity to a generator. Heating of the strong absorbent drives off much of the alcohol from the solution, and a bubble pump, operating upon the ordinary coffee-percolator principle, drives alternate slugs of liquid and alcohol vapor into a separator. From the separator the alcohol vapor flows to the condenser, where liquid alcohol is formed, for reuse as a refrigerant. The weak absorbent solution drains by gravity from the separator into the absorber, where the liquid again picks up the alcohol vapor from the evaporator. Liquid seals are necessary in both the discharge from the condenser and the discharge from the evaporator.
Commercial adaptations of the cycle are usually limited to fractional and small tonnage systems, because a bubble pump is inadequate for movement of large volumes of liquid. Ammonia is commonly used as a refrigerant and water as the absorbent.
The domestic refrigerators are of the same type as commercial ones the only additions over the basic cycle are a gas heat exchanger, a liquid heat exchanger, and an analyzer, all added for greater efficiency.
Answer the questions:
1. Is the compressor used in an absorption refrigeration cycle?
2. How does the refrigerant vapor circulate in an absorbing chamber?
3. What improvements have been added to the elementary system?
4. Why are commercial adaptations of the cycle usually limited to fractional and small tonnage systems?
5. In what way do domestic refrigerators differ from commercial ones?
Exercise I.Read the following light verse. Translate it into Ukrainian. Mind the meaning of the construction The more..., the more....Чим більш..., тим більш.
The more we study, the more we know. The more we know, the more we forget. The more we forget, the less we know. The less we know, the less we forget. The less we forget, the more we know. Why study?
Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the word order.
1. The drier the surrounding air, the greater the rate of evaporation and the lower the wet-bulb temperature indicated.
2. The larger the surface of the evaporator, and the lower the temperature difference between the cold room air and the refrigerant, the higher the relative humidity.
3. The closer the molecules are together, the less free they are to move.
4. The more I read the book, the more I liked it.
5. The higher rose the sun, the hotter became the air.
6. The less you say, the better it is.
7. The more one has, the more one wants.
8. The more haste, the less speed.
9. The sooner you do it the better.
Exercise II.Translate these from English into Ukrainian, paying attention to the meaning of the words: a lot more, much more, far more— набагато більше; far less, much less— набагато менше; (not) as much as, ( not) as many as—(не) так багато, як;
1. This book is much more interesting than that one.
2. This ship costs much more than that boat.
3. A bicycle costs much less than a bus.
4. Last year I went to the swimming pool far more often than I do this year.
5. These days I see him more often.
6. A car hasn't got as many wheels as a train.
7. There is a lot more sugar in the cupboard. Take as much as you want.
Exercise III.Mind the difference between because(тому, що; бо) and because of(через).
Translate these sentences into Ukrainian:
1. He turned on the air conditioning because it was a hot day.
2. He turned on the air-conditioner because of the heat.
3. Because of the superficial resemblance to a reaction turbine, this type is often called a turbine pump.
4. Because the function of a refrigerator is to provide cooling, the temperature must be maintained at 13 to 14°C.
Text for translation:
THE VAPOR ABSORPTION SYSTEM.
In 1859 the absorption system, with ammonia used as the refrigerant and water as the absorbent, was invented.
It is well known that water is a strong absorbent for ammonia vapor. If an evaporator is connected with a vessel full of water, ammonia is absorbed and the pressure of the vapor is reduced. The ammonia in the evaporator is made to boil and its enthalpy of evaporation can be taken from external objects. The solution of ammonia formed in the absorber is regenerated by raising it to a higher pressure and boiling it, at which point ammonia vapor is given off and can be condensed.
The main components of the absorption system are shown in the following figure.
Comparing the absorption system and the vapor compression system, one sees that such components as condenser, expansion valve and evaporator are thesame in each. The compressor, however, is replaced by the combination of absorber, solution pump, heat exchanger, boiler (or generator) and liquid valve. This group of components "sucks" vapor from the evaporator, and delivers high pressure vapor to the condenser Just as thecompressor does.
The absorption of ammonia by water is an exothermic process, and if there is no cooling, the temperature increases and absorption stops. Therefore the absorber must be cooled. It is usually cooled by the same water as is used to cool the condenser, and the absorber operates at about the same temperature as the condenser. The strong solution formed in the absorber is pumped to a higher pressure by the solution pump and delivered to the boiler or generator through a heat exchanger. In the generator, the strong solution is boiled by heating it.
As a result the vapor is given off. After being rectified to nearly pure ammonia, it is delivered to condenser. The weak solution is cooled to the absorber temperature and the strong solution is warmed to the generator temperature. To maintain the difference in pressures between the generator and absorber, a valve is installed in the pipe just before the weak liquid enters the absorber.
The early absorption systems were heated by coal. Later steam heating of the generator was introduced. In recent times they fire oil or natural gas.
THIS IS THE USA.
The USA (the United States of America) is a country in the central part of North America. It was formed on 4 July 1776 when the Declaration of Independence proclaimed the independence of the country from Great Britain.
The area of the USA is 9,400,000 square kilometers including Alaska and Hawaii. The population is 250,000,000 people. About 80% of the population is urban.
The United States is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Washington D.C. is the capital of the country.
The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. It borders with Canada on the north and Mexico on the south. The USA is the country of high mountains, wide prairies and rich valleys. Its climate varies from north to south and from east to west. On the south the climate is mild and warm all year round, but on the north there are long cold winters.
The territory of the USA is rich in natural resources. Ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, oil, lead, aluminium, gold, silver and coal are mined there. The enterprises of the country produce machinery, electronics, automobiles, textile, food and numerous consumer goods.
New York, Chicago, Boston, Washington, San-Francisco are the largest cities of the country. New York is the most populated among them. Light industry and printing arts are developed there. It is also famous for its skyscrapers. Chicago is the second largest city in the country. It is the center of ferrous metallurgy, metal working and petroleum chemistry industry. The two most famous buildings of Washington are the Capitol where the Congress holds its meetings and the White House where the President has his residence.
The USA has a federal system of government. Two main political parties the Democrates and the Republicans fight for the seats in the American Congress. The President, the head of the executive power, is elected for a four-year term. The legislative power belongs to the Congress. George Washington was the first president of the USA.
Most of Americans are descendants of the immigrants. They came to America hoping for greater social, political and economic opportunities than they had in the places they left.
The American way of life is greatly different from that of Europe. First of all, it is the rhythm of life, then habits. Americans love changes. They never live in the same house or are in the same job for 20 years. Americans often throw away things just because they are old. They don't like privacy, they prefer sociability. Many of them are terribly impressed with size. "The bigger — the better" is their motto.
Notes: D.C. — District of Columbia, the federal capital region created in 1790.
ferrous metallurgy /'ferəs me'tæləGi/ чорна металургія
non-ferrous metals — кольорові метали
consumer goods — споживчі товари
executive /ig'zekjutiv/ виконавчий
legislative /' leʒislətiv/ законодавчий
lead /led/ свинець
motto /mo'tou/ девіз
Answer the questions:
1. When was the USA formed?
2. What is the area of the USA?
3. What do youknow about the population of the country?
4. Where is the USA situated?
5. What kind of climate is there in the USA?
6. What can you tell about the government and the political parties of the USA?
7. Can you tell about the country's industry?
8. Which are the largest cities of the USA? What do you know about them?
9. What is the capital of the USA? What does D.C. mean?
10. Who was the first President of the USA?
11. Who is the President of the USA now?
12. What kind of people are Americans?
Text A. Read without translation:
THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING.
1. New York City is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River on the East coast of the USA. It is made up of five boroughs with a combined population of over 17 million people. The heart of New York City is the island of Manhattan, where, in the Midtown and Downtown districts, the buildings scrape the sky.
2. One of these sky-scrapers is the Empire State Building on Fifth Avenue, between 33rd and 34th Street. Like the Statue of Liberty and Brooklyn Bridge, it is instantly recognized as a symbol of New York — a symbol which captures the power, energy and excitement of one's of the world's most-loved and most-hated cities.
3. When the 102-storey structure was built in 1931, it was the tallest building in the world. From the top, on a clear day, you can see over a 50-mile radius. Its towering height and distinctive Art Deco style made the Empire State Building an instant success with the public.
4. Its record as the world's tallest building has since been beaten — the World Trade Center in New York and the Sears Tower in Chicago are both taller — but the Empire State Building remains uniquely fascinating.
5. At night it is floodlit with colored lights. Some people love the lights but others complain that their favorite New York Building has been turned into biggest Christmas tree in the world.
Empire State Facts.
6. — The Empire State is "steeped" above a certain height, rather like a pyramid, to prevent it from the blocking light and from the neighboring area.
7. — There are 6,500 windows, nearly seven miles of elevator shafts and enough floor space to shelter a town of 80,000 people.
8. — The building was first cleaned in 1962. It took thirty people six months to complete the job. They were all experienced at high altitudes, including one who was a former paratrooper.
9. — In the famous film, "King Kong", the giant gorilla, King Kong has his final battle from the top of the Empire State.
Exercises to the text.
I. True or false?
1. The Empire State Building is the tallest building in the world.
2. The Empire State Building is in Manhattan.
3. This building blocks light from the neighboring houses.
4. 80,000 people attend the building every day.
5. This building has never been cleaned.
6. The Empire State Building is one of the symbols of the USA.
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