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Complex Object with the Participle
Складний додаток з дієприкметником
Місце складного додатка в реченні
І. Translate the following sentences with the Absolute Participle Construction into Ukrainian:
1. An electric conductor being moved in a magnetic field, an electric current is generated.
2. The pressure in the boiler lowering, the engineer stopped the engine.
3. The engine running at low revolutions, the temperature of oil remained constant.
4. Some new devices having been obtained, the researchers could make more complex experiments.
5. The installation was improved last year, its capacity rising by 25 per cent.
6. The students wrote their English test-paper, each doing his variant.
7. Part of the energy being changed into heat, not all the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into electric energy.
8. The technique called "controlled atmosphere", in which oxygen and CO contents are kept as constant as possible (nitrogen being a complementary inert gas), is applied essentially for long-term preservation of fruits.
9. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons in the nucleus being equal to the number of electrons outside it.
10. The components of the velocity of a body moving in the air being known, the resultant velocity may be found.
11. The heat being proportional to the square of the current, the rise in temperature in a hot wire instrument is also proportional to the square of current.
12. The pressure being known at some point in the flow of air, the pressure at another point on the same streamline may be calculated by Bernoulli's law.
13. The experiment having been made, scientists were interested in the results.
14. Weather permitting, the ship will leave the harbor.
15. The equipment being broken, the investigaters couldn’t carry out the experiment.
16. The work having been done, the builders left the site.
17. The professor having delivered the lecture, the students put many questions to him.
18. The experiment being demonstrated, all the students watched it with great attention.
19. The experimental system having been adjusted, the post-graduates could continue the experiments.
20. Investigations were completed, the new data being obtained.
II. Transform the sentences according to the model:
Model: The ice being very thin, the children could not cross the river. ® The ice was very thin and the children could not cross the river.
1. Weather permitting, the planes will fly.
2. The work having been done, the workers went away.
3. The students saw many interesting mechanisms while visiting the plant.
4. Scientists discover new laws of nature helping to master it.
5. No satisfactory results having been obtained, the inventor proceeded with his calculations.
6. Having been given the wrong direction, the tourists lost their way.
7. Being a form of matter air has weight and occupies space.
8. Accurate calculations having been made the investigators obtained positive results.
9. Having made the experiments, the students showed the results to the assistant.
10.The article being written, it will be sent to the scientific journal.
III. Translate sentences containing Complex Object with the Participle:
1. The engineer wants the device checking in the laboratory.
2. The students saw the experiment being carried jut by the post-graduates.
3. Workers observed the parts revolving with some interruptions.
4. The mechanic noticed the engine having been broken.
5. We felt the air being stuffy in the room.
6. The investigators knew the calculations being very accurate.
7. The inventor was sure the device working precisely.
8. The students saw many interesting mechanisms working at the plant.
9. Scientists discovered some forms of life existing on the Mars.
10.Scientists proposed the experiments with new safe refrigerants being continued.
Review of Tenses in the Passive Voice:
The Passive Voice
to be + P.II (Past Participle)
IV. Translate from English into Ukrainian. Mind the following:
Особливості перекладу пасивних конструкцій.
Пасивний стан (Passive Voice → to be + Past Participle) перекладається на українську мову за допомогою:
1) дієслова "був", "була", "було", "є", "буде" та короткою формою прикметника пасивного стану The transistors were not invented until 1948. Транзистори були винайдені лише у 1948.
2) дієсловами теперішнього часу пасивного стану з закінченням -ся, -сь. Scientists are more and more involved into problems of peace and war. Вчені все більш і більш втягуються в проблеми миру і війни
3) неозначено-особовими зворотами з дієсловами третьої особи множини теперішнього часу. It is expected that... Очікують, що... Очікується, що
4) дієсловами минулого часу.
The delegation was met at the station. Делегацію зустріли на станції
5) безособовими дієсловами теперішнього та минулого часів
It is known that... Відомо, що...
It was said that ... Було сказано, що ...
1. Oxygen is vital to life; it is needed by the body cells of all animals.
2. Freon-2, which is the best known, has been most used by now.
3. It must, however, be noted that Freon decomposes in an open flame as when welding or braising is carried out in air containing Freon.
4. When heat is transferred from a fluid to a wall and given up to another fluid on the other side, there is a combination of modes of heat transfer.
5. In a frozen product most of the water is transformed into ice and is separated from the other constituents.
6. Normal atmospheric pressure is taken to mean 760 mm. Hg.
7. The pressure of gases and liquids is often measured in kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm2), which unit is often called a technical atmosphere (at).
8. The unit pounds per square inch (lb/ sq. in.) is used in English-speaking countries.
9. Various methods are used in practice for specifying the magnitude of the pressure.
10. By pressure is meant a force that acts at right angles to a surface.
11. Pressure gauges and manometers are graduated in either absolute or gauge pressure, that is, the zero point of the scale is either at absolute vacuum or at normal atmospheric pressure.
V. Open the brackets and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. Some substances (to use) as refrigerants.
2. The electronic system (to increase) the reliability and (to improve) the accuracy in the control of compressor capacity.
3. The possibility of employing inexpensive readily available refrigerants (to be) very important for economical operation.
4. Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics (to interrelate).
5. When America (to discover)?
6. This interesting information (to take) from the Internet.
7. The lecture (to ask) a lot of questions.
8. The results of the experiments (to test) in our laboratory.
9. Freon refrigerants (to use) widely so far.
10.Electrical appliances should (to operate) attentively with.
Read and translate:
Basic Refrigeration Cycles and Concepts.
In the artificial production of low temperatures ranging from the normal ambient-air temperature down to absolute zero, one or more refrigeration cycles or processes may be involved. For cooling in the temperature range down to -200 F, vapor-compression refrigeration using reciprocating, rotary, or centrifugal compressor may be used. Such systems are commonly used for the production of cold. For the production of extremely low temperatures down to absolute zero, irreversible or reversible adiabatic expansion of a gas, vaporization of a liquefied gas, or magnetic cooling may be used.
Although refrigeration is primarily an application of thermodynamics, many other phases of engineering are involved in the design, manufacture, application, and operation of refrigeration systems. Some knowledge of the chemistry of refrigerants is desirable in determining their reactions with metals and other materials with which they may come in contact. The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants must be known before the cycle analyses can be made. A study of evaporators and condensers, those portions of the system used for the absorption and rejection of heat, respectively, involves the fields of heat transmission and fluid mechanics.
In addition, steady state and, in some cases, periodic and transient heat transfer are involved in the determination of cooling-load requirements. The calculation of cooling loads also requires a knowledge of psychrometry. Fluid mechanics forms the basis for the sizing of the lines through which the gaseous and liquid refrigerants must flow. The physical capacity of a compressor or expander will be determined from thermodynamic factors, but the physical design must also involve structural considerations.
The standard unit in the rating of refrigerating machines, condensing units, and other parts of a refrigerating system is the ton of refrigeration, defined as the removal of heat at the rate of 12,000 Btu per hour or 200Btu per minute. The ton-day of refrigeration, also sometimes used, is defined as the heat removed by a ton of refrigeration operating for one day, or 288,000 Btu. These somewhat ambiguous terms have their origin in the concept of the amount of heat absorbed by a ton of ice when melting from the solid to the liquid phase at 32 F. This derivation assumes a latent heat of ice of 144 Btu per pound, whereas it is actually slightly less than this. However, no error is introduced in the calculations, because the units are defined in terms of heat removal and no longer associated with the melting of a definite weight of ice.
Exercise I. Parentheses. Вставні слова.
Exercise II.Translate into Ukrainian:
1. Althoughthere are many different nations in the world there are some things that are the same everywhere.
2. Obviouslyhydraulic turbine values are used for hydraulic turbines hydroelectric systems.
3. However,steel and alloy steels are required for the highest operating pressures such as 5000 psi and 1200 F steam.
4. In spiteof four components, however, the heart of the vapor-compression system is the compressor.
5. On the other hand,all present-day methods for the large-scale use of molecular and nuclear energy are based on the evolution of energy as heat, and subsequent conversion of part of the heat into useful work.
6. Accordingly,the efficiency of all such processes is destined to be low (values greater than 30 percent are uncommon), despiteimprovements in the design of equipment.
7. A still further increase in specific speed is obtained with the propeller, or axial-flow pump. In this type there is no change in radius of a given streamline, and hence centrifugal action plays no part.
8. The use of water power involves the transformation of mechanical energy from one form to another; hence,100 percent efficiency is theoretically possible.
9. Under SI Units, each physical quantity has only one particular unit for its measurement.
Thus,a length is only measured in meters.
Exercise III. Common and Decimal Fractions. Reading Rules:
1/2 — a half; one half
1/3 — a third; one third
1/4 — a quarter, one quarter, a fourth, one fourth
2/3 — two thirds
3/4 — three fourths
2 1/2 — two and a half
3 1/3 — three and a third
0.2 — 1) oh /ou/ point two
2) naught point two
3) zero point two
4) point two
5) nil point two
1.25 — one point two five
Exercise IV. Read the following numerals:
0.5; 2 1/4; 1.5; 1/2; 0.02; 23,000; 1/3; 3/4; 1 1/2; 0.567; 2,600,731; 4,000,000; 2,500; 0.7; Read telephone numbers: (e.g. 123-40-55 — one-two-three-four-oh-double five ) 425-05-05; 322-33-44; 267-12-17; 222-89-90; 321-73-67; 722-52-52; 337-78-94; 566-81-10; 123-45-67.
Years and Dates. Remember the reading rules.
1) 7.1.98 (G.B.) — January the seventh, nineteen ninety-eight
1.7.98 (USA) — January seventh, nineteen ninety-eight
2) 15 June 1900 (G.B.) June the fifteenth, nineteen hundred
3) 16 February 1908 (USA) — February sixteenth, nineteen oh eight
4) 1 March 2000 — March the first, twenty hundred or: two thousand
5) 9 May 1945 — May the ninth, nineteen forty-five.
Exercise V Fill in the prepositions of time at, in, on
1) We shall graduate from the Academy … three years.
2) Students living in the hostel usually get up … six o’clock in the morning.
3) They agreed to meet … seven this evening.
4) The elections to the Parliament will be held … four years.
5) America was discovered … 1492.
6) The lectures and classes in the Academy begin … 8 o’clock.
7) The Day of Independence Americans celebrate … the 4-th of July,
8) The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted … June 28, 1996.
9) The Great Patriotic War started … 1941.
10) We celebrate the Victory Day … May, 9.
Exercise VI. Read the following sentences and translate them into Ukrainian
1. Ukraine declared its independence on 24 August 1991
2. The Second World War started in September 1939
3. The Curies shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903.
4. The first person flew into space on 12 April 1961.
5. J.I.Kennedy was killed on 22 November 1963.
6, Columbus reached America on 12 October 1492
7. Galileo Galilei was born in Italy in 1564.
Exercise VII. Answer the questions:
1) What is today's date? 2) What date was yesterday? 3) What is tomorrow's date? 4) What is
the date of your birth?
Translate the text:
ELEMENTARY VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE WITH RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR.
At atmospheric pressure, liquid ammonia evaporates at -28F (saturated temperature corresponding to 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute pressure or psia), and under these conditions one pound of liquid ammonia in changing into vapor absorbs 589.3 Btu (latent heat of evaporation). Thus the simplest form of a vapor refrigeration system consists of an open vessel containing a liquid refrigerant such as ammonia. The ammonia evaporates at temperatures below those surrounding the container and in so doing absorbs heat. However, such an uncontrolled refrigeration system is uneconomical, since the refrigerant is not recovered and the evaporating temperature is limited to that corresponding to the atmospheric pressure. Such systems are therefore never used commercially.
With proper auxiliary equipment, however, the refrigerant can be recovered and reused in a cyclic process; the temperature of evaporation of the refrigerant can be controlled by controlling the pressure. Thus if liquid ammonia is maintained at a pressure of 30.42 psia, the saturation or evaporating temperature is 0 F, and the latent heat of vaporization is 568.9 Btu per pound; if the absolute pressure is 59.74 psia, the evaporating temperature is 30 F, and the latent heat of vaporization is 544.8 Btu per pound.
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