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III. Translate the sentences with the Infinitive Construction introduced by the preposition for.

Зворот for+ іменник / займенник + інфінітив перекладається підрядним реченням додатковим, обставинним тощо. Підрядні речення приєднуються до головного за допомогою сполучників "що", "щоб", "для того щоб".

1. The temperature of 100°C is needed for water to boil.

2. 29 days are required for the Moon to circle the Earth.

3. Holiday is a good opportunity for us to have a rest.

4. Reading is the most accessible possibility for people to obtain knowledge.

5. For this problem to be solved, the efforts of scientists and engineers are necessary.

6. For this work to be done in time, efforts of many specialists is needed.

7. Much attention should be paid for the atomic power stations to work safety.

8. For wars to be stopped forever, the good will, of all peoples of the world is required.

9. They worked hard for good marks to be got at the examination.

10.For the positive results to be obtained, the investigators carried out a lot of experiments.


Read and translate the texts:


The cooling load on refrigerating equipment seldom results from any one single source of heat. Rather, it is the summation of the heat which usually evolved from several different sources. Some of the more common sources of heat which supply the load on refrigerating equipment are:

1. Heat that leaks into the refrigerated space from the outside by conduction through the insulated walls.

2. Heat that enters the space by direct radiation through glass or other transparent materials.

3. Heat that is brought into the space by warm outside air entering cracks around windows and doors.

4. Heat given off by a warm product as its temperature is lowered to the desired level.

5. Heat given off by people occupying the refrigerated space.

6. Heat given off by any heat-producing equipment located inside the space,such as electric motors, lights,electronic equipment, steam tables, coffee urns, hair driers, etc.

The importance of any one of these heat sources with relation to the total cooling load on the equipment varies with the individual application. Not all of them will be factors in every application, nor will be cooling load in any one application ordinarily include heat from all these sources. However, in any given application, it is essential that consideration be given to all heat sources present and that all the heat evolving from them be taken into account in the over-all calculation.


Although refrigerating equipment capacities are normally given in Btu per hour, in refrigeration applications the total cooling load is usually calculated for a 24-hr period, that is in Btu per 24-hr. Then to determine the required Btu per hour capacity of the equipment,the total load for the 24-hr period is divided by the desired running time for the equipment, viz:

Required Btu/hr = Total cooling load, Btu/24-hr

equipment capacity Desired running time

Because of the necessity for defrosting the evaporator at frequent intervals, it is not practical to design the refrigerating system in such a way that the equipment must operate continuously in order to handle the load. In most cases, the air passing over the cooling coil is chilled to a temperature below its dew point and moisture is condensed out of the air onto the surface of the cooling coil. When the temperature of the coil surface is above the freezing temperature of water, the moisture condensed out of the air drains off the coil into the condensate pan and leaves the space through the condensate drain. However, when the temperature of the cooling coil is below the freezing temperature of water, the moisture condensed out of the air freezes into ice and adheres to the surface of the coil, thereby causing "frost" to accumulate on the coil surface. Since frost accumulation on the coil surface tends to insulate the coil and reduce the coil's capacity, the frost must be melted off periodically by raising the surface temperature of the coil above the freezing point of water and maintaining it on this level until the frost has melted off the coil and left the space through the condensate drain.

No matter how the defrosting is accomplished, the defrosting requires a certain amount of time, during which the refrigerating effect of the system must be stopped.

Answer the questions:

1. What are the sources of heat which supply the load on refrigerating equipment?

2. How is the total cooling load in refrigeration applications calculated?

Lesson В

Translation Practice

Indefinite Personal and Impersonal Sentences Неозначено-особові та безособові речення

Речення, підметами яких виступають займенники it, one(без означення), theyі ці займенники не можуть бути віднесені до раніш згаданих осіб або предметів, перекладаються на українську мову неозначено-особовими чи безособовими реченнями.


It is never too late to learn (proverb)

Вчитися ніколи не пізно

One should take into consideration these instructions.

Ці інструкції слід взяти до уваги.

They say the weather will change in the nearest few days. Говорять, що погода зміниться у найближчі декілька днів.

Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1. It should be fair to say that metal is the bread of industry.

2. One shouldn't think, however, that the students are interested only in lectures and seminars.

3. It is not certain,that this is in fact possible,even in principle.

4. It's frosty. It's going to snow.

5. One has to show one's identity card at the door here.

6. It's getting dark.

7. One must do one's best.

8. They say it is going to be a hot summer.

9. It looks like rain.

10. One should do morning exercises regularly.


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