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When a doctor wants to warn a patient that the consequence of ignoring the advice could be serious, he or she may say:

- If you aren’t feeling better in 7 to 14 days, you really must come back and see me again.

- If you feel that things aren’t settling, aren’t getting back to normal, it’s important that see me again.

- If you keep smoking much, you are going to end up with a long-term problem.

- It’s very important you don’t stop taking the tablets suddenly or your symptoms will return.


1. Complete the advice.

1. If you __________________ smoking, you increase the risk of lung cancer and heart disease.

2. Your health would improve if you _______________ alcohol completely.

3. You could ____________ __________ with a serious drug problem.

4. I’m going to ____________ you ___________ with some tablets. If they don’t help, we’ll need to think about surgery.

5. ___________ ___________ on the amount of salt you take with your food.

6. I expect things will ____________ in a few days and you’ll be able to get up.

7. Try to _______________ situations where you feel stressed.


2. Match the two parts of the sentences.

1. If you still have pain,

2. If you find it difficult to give up smoking,

3. Your symptoms will return

4. If you can’t get to sleep,

5. Come back and see me again

6. If you are still concerned,


a. try to avoid caffeine later in the day.

b. if you find your breathlessness has increased.

c. keep taking paracetamol.

d. I can refer you to a consultant.

e. if you start smoking again.

f. I can arrange for nicotine replacement therapy.


4. Advise a patient with high blood pressure about physical activity. Look at the information in the table, and C to help you.

Advice for people with heart disease or high blood pressure
Do Avoid
Moderate, rhythmic (aerobic) exercise such as brisk walking, cycling or swimming. Intense exercise such as weight-lifting, press-ups.
Any regular physical activity that you are used to. Any sport or activity that brings on angina.
Eat a low cholesterol diet. Moving from floor to standing exercises too quickly.


Unit 24 Data Presentation

Referring to a table or figure

In an article, you can write:

Figure 1 Table 1 shows X.
X is shown in Figure 1. Table 1.


In a presentation, you can use the same expressions, or you can say:



Comparing variables

When you refer to a table you will often need to compare one variable with another:

X was twice three times as effective common as Y.


Or you may need to compare the same variable at different times:

The number of X in 2000 was double triple / three times thatin 1990.


There was a twofold threefold increase in the number of X between 1990 and 2000.


The number of X increased twofold threefold between 1990 and 2000.
The number or X doubled trebled



When referring to the data presented on slides, numbers are often rounded, for example 41.3 becomes 41 or even 40. When this is done, it is common to use expressions of approximation:

Side-effects were reported by about around approximately roughly some forty patients.


Numbers are frequently presented as fractions or percentages, even when the exact number is given.



When you want to emphasize a number, for example 9.8%, you can say:

almost 10% nearly 10% more than 9% over 9% just under 10%  

and when you want to make the number seem small:

less than 10%


1. Complete the description of the data in the table.

Table 1: Incidence of ulcer perforation 1967-1982

    >65 65-74 >75
No. of prescriptions per 1000 (Women)    
Perforations (Women)  
No. of prescriptions (Men)    
Perforations (Men)  


Table 1 (1) …………… trends in the frequency of hospital admission for perforated peptic ulcer in the United Kingdom (2) …………… with changes in the annual prescription rates for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

For women over 65 the annual number of prescriptions increased (3) …………… from 1967 to 1982, during which rates of perforation of duodenal ulcers (4) …………… for those aged 65 to 74 and more than (5) …………… for those aged 75 and over. For men over 65, prescriptions showed a similar increase. Although perforation rates were actually lower for those aged 65 to 74 in 1982, there was a (6) …………… increase in those aged 75 and above.

(BMJ 1986; 292: 614 Amended with permission from the BMJ Publishing Group)


2. The data in the table is adapted from an article entitled 'Alcohol drinking in middle age'. Choose the correct words to complete the description below.


  Alcohol drinking
Characteristics Never (n=300) Infrequent (n=423) Frequent (n=295)
No. (%) of smokers 54 (18.0) 193 (45.6) 204 (69.2)
Old age measurements (follow up)      
No. (%) who have had myocardial infarction 41 (13.7) 60 (14.2) 54 (18.3)
Results of cognitive assessment      
No. (%) with no impairment (controls) 261 (87) 391 (92.4) 257 (87.1)
No. (%) with mild cognitive impairment 25 (8.3) 15(3.5) 21 (7.1)
No. (%) with dementia 14 (4.7) 17 (4) 17 (5.8)


Only 54, or (1) …………… (under/less) than 20%, of the non-drinkers smoked compared with 204, or (2) …………… (almost/over) 70%, of the frequent drinkers. 41, or just (3) …………… (less/under) 14% of the non-drinkers had had a myocardial infarction at the end of the follow-up period, compared with 54, or (4) …………… (almost/over) 18%, of the frequent drinkers. At the end of the follow-up period, (5) …………… (about/over) 90% in all three groups had no cognitive impairment. There was mild impairment in (6) …………… (under/around) 8% of the non-drinkers, and in 7% of the frequent drinkers, but in (7) …………… (less/under) than 4% of the infrequent drinkers. 14, or (8) …………… (approximately/over) 5%, of the non-drinkers had dementia, while 17, or 4% of the infrequent drinkers, and (9) …………… (more than/nearly) 6% of the frequent drinkers had dementia.

(BMJ 2004; 329: 539 Amended with permission from the BMJ Publishing Group)

impairment – слабость, нарушение




Unit 25 Research articles and Abstracts

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